SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ____________ to __________
Commission file number 001-38487
Origin Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
500 South Service Road East
Ruston, Louisiana 71270
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each Class
Name of Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $5.00 per share
Nasdaq Global Select Market
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☐ No ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statement incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)
Large accelerated filer ☐
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☒
Smaller reporting company ☐
Emerging growth company ☒
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes ☐ No ☒
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $768.0 million as of June 29, 2018, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Solely for the purpose of this computation, it has been assumed that executive officers and directors of the Registrant are "affiliates".
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date: 23,747,535 shares of Common Stock, par value $5.00 per share, were issued and outstanding as of February 25, 2019.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Origin Bancorp, Inc. to be held on April 24, 2019, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2018.
ORIGIN BANCORP, INC.
DECEMBER 31, 2018
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Statements preceded by, followed by or that otherwise include the words "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "intends," "plans," "projects," and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "could," "may," "should," "will," and "would," are generally forward-looking in nature and not historical facts, although not all forward-looking statements include the foregoing words. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management's beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
deterioration of our asset quality;
factors that can impact the performance of our loan portfolio, including real estate values and liquidity in our primary market areas, the financial health of our commercial borrowers and the success of construction projects that we finance, including any loans acquired in acquisition transactions;
changes in the value of collateral securing our loans;
our ability to anticipate interest rate changes and manage interest rate risk;
our inability to receive dividends from our Bank and to service debt, pay dividends to our common stockholders and satisfy obligations as they become due;
business and economic conditions generally and in the financial services industry, nationally and within our local market area;
our ability to prudently manage our growth and execute our strategy;
changes in management personnel;
our ability to maintain important deposit customer relationships, our reputation or otherwise avoid liquidity risks;
operational risks associated with our business;
volatility and direction of market interest rates;
increased competition in the financial services industry, particularly from regional and national institutions;
changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations or policies relating to financial institutions, as well as tax, trade, monetary and fiscal matters;
periodic changes to the extensive body of accounting rules and best practices, including the current expected credit loss model, may change the treatment and recognition of critical financial line items and affect our profitability;
further government intervention in the U.S. financial system;
compliance with governmental and regulatory requirements, including the Dodd-Frank Act and others relating to banking, consumer protection, securities and tax matters;
natural disasters and adverse weather, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic calamities, and other matters beyond our control; and
other factors that are discussed in the section titled "Item 1A. Risk Factors" in this report.
The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this report. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
Item 1. Business
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "we," "us," "our," "our company," "the Company" or "Origin" refer to Origin Bancorp, Inc., a Louisiana corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references to "Origin Bank" or "the Bank" refer to Origin Bank, our wholly owned bank subsidiary.
We are a financial holding company headquartered in Ruston, Louisiana. Our wholly owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, was founded in 1912. Deeply rooted in our history is a culture committed to providing personalized, relationship banking to our clients and communities. We provide a broad range of financial services to small and medium-sized businesses, municipalities, high net worth individuals and retail clients. We currently operate 41 banking centers from Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas across North Louisiana to Central Mississippi, which we refer to as the I-20 Corridor, as well as in Houston, Texas. As of December 31, 2018, we had total assets of $4.82 billion, total loans of $3.84 billion, total deposits of $3.78 billion and total stockholders' equity of $549.8 million.
We completed an initial public offering of our common stock in May 2018 as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (the "JOBS Act"). Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK."
We are committed to building unique client experiences through a strong culture, experienced leadership team and a focus on delivering unmatched customer service throughout Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Our success has been based on (1) a talented team of relationship bankers, executives and directors, (2) a diverse footprint with stable and growth-oriented markets, (3) differentiated and customized delivery and service, (4) our core deposit franchise and (5) an ability to significantly leverage our infrastructure and technology.
Successful execution of our strategic plan has produced significant growth in our franchise. Since 2005, we have enhanced our growth by integrating three bank acquisitions, entering several expansion markets, expanding our product offerings in mortgage lending, mortgage servicing as well as in insurance and private banking. Through these efforts, we have successfully increased our market share in each of our key geographic markets. To support our growth, we have raised over $281.8 million of new capital since 2006, including proceeds from our initial public offering completed in May 2018. We have also supplemented our entry into expansion markets by hiring a number of experienced in-market bankers and banking teams.
Our Competitive Strengths and Banking Strategy
Organic Growth Capabilities with Strategic Acquisitions
We have demonstrated our historical ability to grow our loans and deposits organically. Our team of seasoned bankers has been an important driver of our organic growth by further developing banking relationships with current and potential clients. Our relationship bankers are motivated to increase the size of their loan and deposit portfolios and generate fee income while maintaining strong credit quality. To promote our organic growth, we strategically locate banking centers within our markets and employ highly experienced relationship bankers who proactively develop valuable relationships within the communities that we serve. Through these relationships, our bankers are able to capitalize on loan demand across a wide range of industries. This allows us to not only diversify our loan portfolio, but also focus on loans with quality credit characteristics.
We focus on generating core deposits and, in particular, noninterest-bearing deposits, as our primary funding source to support loan growth. We believe motivating our relationship bankers to generate strong core, noninterest-bearing deposit growth enhances our ability to build and strengthen client relationships and provide stable funding for future growth.
We also intend to continue pursuing selective acquisition opportunities that we expect will enhance our business model in markets across our attractive geographic footprint.
A Unique from Within Client Experience
Our mission is to passionately pursue ways to make banking more rewarding for our customers, employees, stockholders and communities by providing a unique client experience. We recognize that providing a distinguished client service begins with a commitment to building, training and retaining a customer-focused team that exemplifies our core values. Relationships built upon trust, encouraging a strong work ethic, innovation, flexibility and forward-thinking, genuine respect for others, cultivating a commitment to our community and never compromising on integrity are the benchmarks of our values and our promise is to make every customer feel like our only customer, every time.
Concentration on Sound Asset Quality
We believe that asset quality is a key to long-term financial success. We seek to maintain sound asset quality by moderating credit risk and adhering to prudent lending practices and by promoting a relationship-based approach to commercial and consumer banking. Our executive management team has extensive knowledge of the bank regulatory landscape, significant experience navigating interest rate and credit cycles and a long history of collaboration, which we believe may help us avoid or mitigate unforeseen losses.
Expanding Revenue Sources
We offer commercial and retail customers a wide range of products and services that provide us with a diversified revenue stream and help us to solidify customer relationships. We provide products and services that compete with large, national banks, but with the personalized attention and responsiveness of a relationship-focused community bank. Our offerings include traditional retail deposits, treasury management, commercial deposits, mortgage origination and servicing, insurance, mobile banking and online banking. Our clients value our ability to provide the sophisticated products and services of larger banks, but with a local and agile decision-making process, a focus on building personal relationships, and a commitment to investing in the local economy and community. This allows us to build Origin Bank on low-cost core deposit relationships, high credit quality loans, and fee income generated by value-added services. It also allows us to develop strong relationships across industries, creating a diverse commercial loan portfolio.
We believe we have an attractive mix of loans and deposits. As of December 31, 2018, our loans held for investment portfolio was comprised of 39.1% commercial and industrial loans, and 43.7% commercial real estate loans. This focus on commercial lending increases the asset sensitivity of our balance sheet, positioning us well for a rising-rate environment, and provides potential growth opportunities due to our limited real estate concentrations. As of December 31, 2018, approximately 25.1% of our deposits were noninterest-bearing demand deposits and our cost of total deposits was 0.81% for the year ended December 31, 2018.
We currently operate in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, North Louisiana, Central Mississippi, as well as Houston, Texas, all of which offer an attractive combination of diversity, growth and stability. The Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston markets provide attractive economic environments and offer significant deposit and lending opportunities as they are home to many large and mid-size corporations across a wide range of industries that include healthcare, manufacturing, higher education, agriculture, transportation and technology.
Our legacy markets in North Louisiana offer a stable economic climate and a lower cost deposit-gathering and operational platform. Our footprint in Central Mississippi comprises areas of significant commercial growth and investment. We believe all of our markets consist of vibrant areas of the United States with favorable business climates and significant population and employment growth.
Our Banking Services
We offer products and services through a network of 41 retail branch offices. We are focused on delivering a broad range of relationship-driven financial services tailored to meet the needs of small and medium-sized businesses, municipalities, high net worth individuals and retail clients in North Louisiana, Central Mississippi, Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston, Texas. We principally operate in one business segment, community banking. We are primarily engaged in attracting deposits from individuals and businesses and using these deposits and borrowed funds to originate commercial, residential mortgage, construction and consumer loans.
We have grown our assets, deposits, and business organically and through acquisition by building on our lending products, expanding our deposit products and delivery capabilities, opening new branches, and hiring experienced bankers with existing customer relationships in our market areas.
A general discussion of the range of financial services we offer follows.
We originate loans primarily secured by single and multi-family real estate, residential construction and commercial buildings. In addition, we make loans to small and mid-sized businesses, as well as to consumers for a variety of purposes. Our loan portfolio as of the dates indicated was comprised as follows:
(Dollars in thousands)
Commercial real estate
Residential real estate
Total real estate
Commercial and industrial
Mortgage warehouse lines of credit
Total loans held for investment
Commercial Real Estate Loans. We primarily originate commercial real estate loans and construction/land/land development loans that are generally secured by real estate located in our market areas. Our commercial mortgage loans are generally collateralized by first liens on real estate and amortize over 25 to 30 years with balloon payments typically due at the end of five years. These loans are generally underwritten by addressing cash flow (debt service coverage), primary and secondary source of repayment, the financial strength of any guarantor, the strength of the tenant (if any), the borrower's liquidity and leverage, management experience, ownership structure, economic conditions, industry specific trends and collateral. Commercial real estate loans have contributed interest income of $54.8 million and $46.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, and 2017, respectively, while construction/land/land development loans have contributed interest income of $19.6 million and $14.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Consumer Loans. Our consumer loan portfolio is primarily composed of secured and unsecured loans that we originate. The largest component of our consumer loan portfolio is for residential real estate purposes. We originate one-to-four family, owner occupied residential mortgage loans generally secured by property located in our primary market areas. The majority of our residential mortgage loans consist of loans secured by owner occupied, single family residences. These loans are underwritten by giving consideration to the borrower's ability to pay, stability of employment or source of income, debt-to-income ratio, credit history and loan-to-value ratio. Consumer loans also include closed-end second mortgages, home equity lines of credit and our mortgage loans held for sale.
Commercial and Industrial Loans. Commercial and industrial loans are made for a variety of business purposes, including working capital, inventory, equipment and capital expansion. The terms for commercial loans are generally one to seven years. Commercial loans are generally underwritten by addressing cash flow (debt service coverage), primary and secondary sources of repayment, the financial strength of any guarantor, the borrower's liquidity and leverage, management experience, ownership structure, economic conditions, industry specific trends and collateral. Commercial and industrial loans also include mortgage warehouse loans which are extended to mortgage companies and secured by loan participations
in mortgages that are typically sold within 20 to 30 days. Commercial and industrial loans have contributed interest income of $54.6 million and $43.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, and 2017, respectively, while mortgage warehouse loans have contributed interest income of $10.6 million and $9.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
Credit Risks. The principal economic risk associated with each category of loans we make is the creditworthiness of the borrower and the ability of the borrower to repay the relevant loan. Borrower creditworthiness is affected by general economic conditions, including interest rates, inflation and in the case of commercial borrowers, demand for the borrower's products and services, and other factors affecting the borrower's customers, suppliers and employees.
Risks associated with real estate loans also include fluctuations in the value of real estate, new job creation trends, tenant vacancy rates and, in the case of commercial borrowers, the quality of the borrower's management. Consumer loan repayments depend on the borrower's financial stability and are more likely than commercial loans to be adversely affected by divorce, job loss, illness and other personal hardships.
Lending Philosophy. Our lending philosophy is driven by our commitment to centralized underwriting for all loans, local market knowledge, long-term customer relationships and a conservative credit culture. To implement this philosophy we have established various levels of authority and review, including our Credit Risk Management Group. In each loan review, we emphasize cash flow and secondary and tertiary repayment sources, such as guarantors. We generally avoid lending to highly cyclical industries and typically avoid making certain types of loans that we consider to be higher risk.
Lending Policies. We have established common documentation and policies for each type of loan. We have also established a corporate loan committee with authority to approve loans up to the legal lending limit of Origin Bank. Credits of $5.0 million or greater are generally presented for review or approval prior to committing to the loan. The corporate loan committee meets weekly and on an ad hoc basis as needed.
Origin Bank's board of directors periodically reviews our lending policies and procedures. In addition, there are legal restrictions on the maximum amount of loans available for each lending relationship. As of December 31, 2018, Origin Bank's legal lending limit under the Louisiana Banking Law and the Regulation O of the Federal Reserve was $175.3 million for secured loans, $70.1 million for unsecured loans and $81.7 million for loans to insiders. As of December 31, 2018, we had established a general in-house lending limit ranging between $30.0 million and $35.0 million to any one borrower, based upon our internal risk rating of the relationship.
Deposits and Other Sources of Funds
An important aspect of our business franchise is the ability to gather deposits. As of December 31, 2018, we held $3.78 billion of total deposits and have grown deposits at a compound annual growth rate of 18.6% since December 31, 2003. As of December 31, 2018, 81.8% of our total deposits were core deposits (defined as total deposits excluding time deposits greater than $250,000 and brokered deposits). We offer a wide range of deposit services, including checking, savings, money market accounts and time deposits. We obtain most of our deposits from individuals, small businesses and municipalities in our market areas. One area of focus has been to create a deposit-focused sales force of business development bankers who have extensive contacts and connections with targeted clients and centers of influence throughout our communities. We also have access to secondary sources of funding, including advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, borrowings at the Federal Reserve Discount Window and other borrowings.
We are also engaged in the residential mortgage banking business, which primarily generates income from the sale of mortgage loans as well as the servicing of residential mortgage loans for others. We originate residential mortgage loans in our markets as a service to our existing customers and as a way to develop relationships with new customers, in order to support our core banking strategy. Revenue from our mortgage banking activities was $9.6 million, $15.8 million and $14.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
We offer a wide variety of personal and commercial property and casualty insurance products through our wholly owned insurance agencies, Thomas & Farr and Reeves, Coon & Funderburg ("RCF"). With 30 years of growth in the insurance industry and more than 87 experienced professionals, our agencies have primary market locations across Louisiana, but also serve customers in Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas and other states across the U.S. We also have a 38% interest in
Lincoln Agency, LLC, a full-service insurance agency operating in North Louisiana. In July 2018, we completed the acquisition of RCF, solidifying our presence as one of the larger independent insurance agencies in North Louisiana. Insurance commission and fee income was $9.7 million, $7.2 million and $6.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Other Banking Services
Given customer demand for increased convenience and account access, we offer a wide range of products and services, including 24-hour Internet banking and voice response information, mobile applications, cash management, overdraft protection, direct deposit, safe deposit boxes, U.S. savings bonds and automatic account transfers.
Information Technology Systems
We continue to make significant investments in our information technology systems for our banking operations and treasury services to enhance our capabilities to offer new products and overall customer experience, to provide scale for future growth and acquisitions, and to increase controls and efficiencies in our back-office operations. We have obtained our core data processing platform from a nationally recognized bank processing vendor and we leverage the capabilities of a third-party service provider in developing our network design and architecture. We also actively manage our business continuity plan. The majority of our other systems, including electronic funds transfer and transaction processing, are operated in-house. Online banking services and other public-facing web services are performed using third-party service providers. We strive to follow all recommendations outlined by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council and we perform regular tests of the adequacy of our contingency plans for key functions and systems.
The banking business is highly competitive, and our profitability will depend in large part on our ability to compete with other banks and non-bank financial service companies located in our markets for lending opportunities, deposit funds, financial products, bankers and acquisition targets.
We are subject to vigorous competition in all aspects of our business from banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, finance companies, credit unions and other financial service providers, such as money market funds, brokerage firms, consumer finance companies, asset-based non-bank lenders, insurance companies and certain other non-financial entities, including retail stores which may maintain their own credit programs and certain governmental organizations which may offer more favorable financing than we can.
We conduct business through 41 banking centers in our key market areas of North Louisiana, Central Mississippi, and Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston, Texas. Many other commercial banks, savings institutions and credit unions have offices in our primary market areas. These institutions include many of the largest banks operating in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi, including various leading national banks. Our competitors often have greater resources, have broader geographic markets, have higher lending limits, offer various services that we may not currently offer and may better afford and make broader use of media advertising, support services and electronic technology than we do. To offset these competitive disadvantages, we depend on our reputation as having greater personal service, consistency, flexibility and the ability to make credit and other business decisions quickly.
As of December 31, 2018, we had 761 full-time equivalent employees. None of our employees are represented by any collective bargaining unit or are parties to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.
We were organized as a business corporation in 1991 under the laws of the state of Louisiana. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 South Service Road East, Ruston, Louisiana 71270, and our telephone number is (318) 255-2222. Our website is www.origin.bank. We make available at this address, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our annual reports to stockholders, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). These documents are also available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov.
The information contained on or accessible from our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference herein.
Regulation and Supervision
The U.S. banking industry is highly regulated under federal and state law. Consequently, our growth and earnings performance will be affected not only by management decisions and general and local economic conditions, but also by the statutes administered by, and the regulations and policies of, various governmental regulatory authorities. These authorities include the Federal Reserve, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC"), Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ("Bureau"), Internal Revenue Service and state taxing authorities. The effect of these statutes, regulations and policies, and any changes to such statutes, regulations and policies, can be significant and cannot be predicted.
The primary goals of the bank regulatory scheme are to maintain a safe and sound banking system, facilitate the conduct of sound monetary policy and promote fairness and transparency for financial products and services. The system of supervision and regulation applicable to us and our subsidiaries establishes a comprehensive framework for their respective operations and is intended primarily for the protection of the FDIC's Deposit Insurance Fund, the Bank's depositors and the public, rather than our stockholders or creditors. The description below summarizes certain elements of the bank regulatory framework applicable to us. This description is not intended to describe all laws and regulations applicable to us and our subsidiaries, and the description is qualified in its entirety by reference to the full text of the statutes, regulations, policies, interpretive letters and other written guidance that are described herein.
Bank Holding Company Regulation
Because we control Origin Bank, we are subject to regulation under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended, and to supervision, examination and enforcement by the Federal Reserve. The Bank Holding Company Act and other federal laws subject bank holding companies to particular restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements and activities, including regulatory enforcement actions for violations of laws and regulations. The Federal Reserve's jurisdiction also extends to any company that we directly or indirectly control, such as any nonbank subsidiaries and other companies in which we own a controlling investment.
Financial Services Industry Reform. The Dodd-Frank Act, which was enacted in 2010, broadly affects the financial services industry by implementing changes to the financial regulatory landscape aimed at strengthening the sound operation of the financial services sector, including provisions that, among other things:
apply the same leverage and risk-based capital requirements that cover insured depository institutions to bank holding companies with total assets in excess of $1 billion;
establish the Bureau to, among other things, establish and implement rules and regulations applicable to all entities offering consumer financial products or services;
permanently increase FDIC deposit insurance maximum to $250,000 and broaden the base for FDIC insurance assessments from the amount of insured deposits to average total consolidated assets less average tangible equity during the assessment period, subject to certain adjustments;
eliminate the upper limit for the reserve ratio designated by the FDIC each year for the Deposit Insurance Fund, increase the minimum designated reserve ratio of the deposit insurance fund from 1.15% to 1.35% of the estimated amount of total insured deposits by September 30, 2020, and eliminate the requirement that the FDIC pay dividends to depository institutions when the reserve ratio exceeds certain thresholds;
permit banks to branch across state lines if the laws of the state where the new branch is to be established would permit the establishment of the branch if it were part of a bank that was chartered by such state;
repeal the federal prohibitions on the payment of interest on demand deposits, thereby permitting depository institutions to pay interest on business transaction and other accounts;
require bank holding companies and banks to be "well capitalized" and "well managed" in order to acquire banks located outside of their home state and require any bank holding company electing to be treated as a financial holding company to be "well capitalized" and "well managed;"
direct the Federal Reserve to establish limitations on interchange fees for debit cards under a "reasonable and proportional cost" per transaction standard;
prohibit a banking entity under a provision known as the Volcker Rule from engaging in proprietary trading or holding an ownership interest in or sponsoring a hedge fund or a private equity fund;
increase regulation of consumer protections regarding mortgage originations, including originator compensation, minimum repayment standards, and prepayment consideration;
implement corporate governance revisions, including with regard to executive compensation and proxy access by stockholders; and
increase the authority of the Federal Reserve to examine us and any nonbank subsidiaries.
In May 2018, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act ("EGRRCPA") was signed into law. While EGRRCPA preserves the fundamental elements of the post-Dodd-Frank Act regulatory framework, it includes modifications that are intended to result in meaningful regulatory relief both from certain provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act and from certain regulatory capital rules for smaller and certain regional banking organizations. Among other things, EGRRCPA exempts us from the Volcker Rule, allows us to avoid the risk-based capital rules if we maintain a specific "community bank leverage ratio," revises the capital treatment of certain commercial real estate loans, and amends certain Truth in Lending Act requirements for residential mortgage loans.
Even after the EGRRCPA modifications, the Dodd-Frank Act may impact the profitability of our business activities, require changes to certain of our business practices, impose upon us more stringent capital, liquidity and leverage requirements or otherwise adversely affect our business. These changes may also require us to invest significant management attention and resources to evaluate and make any changes necessary to comply with new statutory and regulatory requirements. Failure to comply with any new requirements may negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition.
Revised Rules on Regulatory Capital. The Federal Reserve monitors our capital adequacy at the holding company level by using a combination of risk-based guidelines and leverage ratios and considers our capital levels when taking action on various types of applications and when conducting supervisory activities. The risk-based capital standards are designed to make regulatory capital requirements more sensitive to differences in risk profiles among financial institutions and their holding companies, to account for off-balance sheet exposure, and to minimize disincentives for holding liquid assets. The regulatory capital rules applicable to us were revised, effective January 1, 2015, under the Basel III regulatory capital framework. These rules include a new common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital requirement and establish criteria that instruments must meet to be considered common equity Tier 1 capital, additional Tier 1 capital or Tier 2 capital. These enhancements are designed to both improve the quality and increase the quantity of capital required to be held by banking organizations, better equipping the U.S. banking system to cope with adverse economic conditions. Under these rules, we are required to satisfy four minimum capital standards: (1) a Tier 1 capital to average total consolidated assets ratio, or "leverage ratio," of at least 4.0%, (2) a common equity Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio, or "common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio," of 4.5%, (3) a Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets ratio, or "Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio," of at least 6.0%, and (4) a total risk-based capital (Tier 1 plus Tier 2) to risk-weighted assets ratio, or "total risk-based capital ratio," of at least 8.0%.
The capital rules also require bank holding companies to maintain a capital conservation buffer above the minimum capital requirements composed solely of common equity Tier 1 capital to avoid certain restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. When fully phased in, the capital conservation buffer requirement will effectively require banking organizations to maintain regulatory risk-based capital ratios at least 2.5% above the minimum risk-based capital requirements set forth above. This buffer is intended to help to ensure that banking organizations conserve capital when it is most needed, allowing them to better weather periods of economic stress. The capital conservation buffer is being phasing in over a four year period that began in January 2016. As of January 1, 2018, the phased-in portion of the capital conservation buffer was 1.875% of risk-weighted assets, and the buffer was fully phased in on January 1, 2019.
The revised regulatory capital rules implement stricter eligibility criteria for regulatory capital instruments that would disallow the inclusion of instruments, such as trust preferred securities (other than grandfathered trust preferred securities, such as those that we have issued), in Tier 1 capital going forward and new constraints on the inclusion of minority interests, mortgage servicing assets, deferred tax assets and certain investments in the capital of unconsolidated financial institutions. In addition, the rules require that most regulatory capital deductions be made from common equity Tier 1 capital.
These rules also set forth certain changes in the methods of calculating certain risk-weighted assets, which in turn will affect the calculation of risk-based capital ratios. Under the rules, higher or more sensitive risk weights have been assigned to various categories of assets, including, certain credit facilities that finance the acquisition, development or construction of real property, certain exposures or credits that are 90 days past due or on nonaccrual status, foreign exposures and certain corporate exposures. In addition, these rules include greater recognition of collateral and guarantees, and revised capital treatment for derivatives and repo-style transactions.
EGRRCPA exempts most banking organizations with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets from the risk-based and leverage capital rules and the capital conservation buffer if they maintain a "community bank leverage ratio" ("CBLR") of between 8% and 10%, the precise standard to be set by the federal banking agencies, and meet certain other requirements. On December 21, 2018, the agencies proposed a CBLR of 9%. We discuss the CBLR further below under "Bank Regulation – Capital Adequacy Requirements."
These capital requirements are minimum requirements. The Federal Reserve may also set higher capital requirements if warranted by our risk profile, economic conditions impacting our market or other circumstances particular to our organization. For example, holding companies experiencing internal growth or making acquisitions are expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject us to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive or restrictions on our operations and expansionary activities.
Imposition of Liability for Undercapitalized Subsidiaries. Federal banking regulations require FDIC-insured banks that become undercapitalized to submit a capital restoration plan. The capital restoration plan of a bank controlled by a bank holding company will not be accepted by the regulators unless each company having control of the undercapitalized institution guarantees the subsidiary's compliance with the capital restoration plan up to a certain specified amount. Any such guarantee from a bank holding company is entitled to a priority of payment in bankruptcy.
The aggregate liability of the holding company of an undercapitalized bank in such a guarantee is limited to the lesser of 5% of the bank's assets at the time it became undercapitalized or the amount necessary to cause the institution to be adequately capitalized. The federal banking agencies have greater power in situations where a bank becomes significantly or critically undercapitalized or fails to submit a capital restoration plan. For example, a bank holding company controlling such a bank can be required to obtain prior Federal Reserve approval of proposed dividends, or might be required to divest the bank or other affiliates.
Acquisitions by Bank Holding Companies. We must obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (1) acquiring more than 5% of the voting stock of any bank or other bank holding company, (2) acquiring all or substantially all of the assets of any bank or bank holding company, or (3) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. In evaluating applications with respect to these transactions, the Federal Reserve is required to consider, among other things, the effect of the acquisition on competition, the financial condition, managerial resources and future prospects of the bank holding company and the banks concerned, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served (including the record of performance under the Community Reinvestment Act), the effectiveness of the applicant in combating money laundering activities, and the extent to which the proposed acquisition would result in greater or more concentrated risks to the stability of the U.S. banking or financial system. The Federal Reserve can deny an application based on the above criteria or other considerations. In addition, as a condition to receiving regulatory approval, the Federal Reserve can impose conditions on the acquirer or the business to be acquired, which may not be acceptable or, if acceptable, may reduce the benefit of a proposed acquisition.
Control Acquisitions. Subject to various exceptions, the Bank Holding Company Act and the Change in Bank Control Act, together with related regulations, require Federal Reserve approval or non-objection prior to any person or company acquiring "control" of a bank holding company. Although "control" is based on all of the facts and circumstances surrounding the investment, control under the Bank Holding Company Act is conclusively presumed to exist if a person or company acquires 25% of more of any class of voting securities of the bank holding company, controls the election of a majority of the board of directors, or able to exercise a controlling influence over the management or policies of the company.
Control of a bank holding company is rebuttably presumed to exist under the Change in Bank Control Act if the acquiring person or entity will own 10% or more of any class of voting securities immediately following the transaction and either no other person will hold a greater percentage of that class of voting securities after the acquisition or the bank holding company has publicly registered securities.
Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends; Source of Strength. As a financial holding company, we are subject to certain restrictions on dividends under applicable banking laws and regulations. The Federal Reserve has issued a supervisory letter that provides that a bank holding company should not pay dividends unless: (1) its net income over the last four quarters (net of dividends paid) has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends; (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention is consistent with the capital needs, asset quality and overall financial condition of the bank holding company; and (3) the bank holding company will continue to meet, and is not in danger of failing to meet, minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios. Failure to comply with the supervisory letter could result in a supervisory finding that the bank holding company is operating in an unsafe and unsound manner. In addition, our ability to pay dividends may also be limited if we must maintain the capital conservation buffer under the regulatory capital rules. In the current financial and economic environment, the Federal Reserve Board has indicated that bank holding companies should carefully review their dividend policy and has discouraged payment ratios that are at maximum allowable levels unless both asset quality and capital are very strong. The Federal Reserve may further restrict the payment of dividends by engaging in supervisory action to restrict dividends or by requiring us to maintain a higher level of capital then would otherwise be required under the Basel III minimum capital requirements.
Under longstanding Federal Reserve policy, which has been codified by the Dodd-Frank Act, we are expected to act as a source of financial strength to, and to commit resources to support, Origin Bank. This support may be required at times when we may not be inclined to provide it. In addition, any capital loans that we make to Origin Bank are subordinate in right of payment to deposits and to certain other indebtedness of Origin Bank. As discussed above, in certain circumstances, we could also be required to guarantee the capital restoration plan of Origin Bank, if it became undercapitalized for purposes of the Federal Reserve's prompt corrective action regulations. In the event of our bankruptcy, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of Origin Bank under a capital restoration plan would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee and entitled to a priority of payment.
Scope of Permissible Activities. In general, the Bank Holding Company Act limits the activities permissible for bank holding companies to the business of banking, managing or controlling banks and such other activities as the Federal Reserve has determined to be so closely related to banking as to be properly incident thereto. Permissible activities for a bank holding company include, among others, operating a mortgage, finance, credit card or factoring company; performing certain data processing operations; providing investment and financial advice; acting as an insurance agent for certain types of credit-related insurance; leasing personal property on a full-payout, nonoperating basis; and providing certain stock brokerage services. A bank holding company may also make an investment of up to 5% of any class of voting securities of any company that is otherwise a non-controlling investment.
A bank holding company may elect to become a financial holding company, as we have done, it may engage in activities that are (1) financial in nature or incidental to such financial activity or (2) complementary to a financial activity and which do not pose a substantial risk to the safety and soundness of a depository institution or to the financial system generally. These activities include securities dealing, underwriting and market making, insurance underwriting and agency activities, merchant banking and insurance company portfolio investments. Expanded financial activities of financial holding companies generally will be regulated according to the type of such financial activity: banking activities by banking regulators, securities activities by securities regulators and insurance activities by insurance regulators. A bank holding company may elect to be treated as a financial holding company if it is "well capitalized" and "well managed" and if each of its depository institution subsidiaries is "well capitalized" and "well managed," and has received a rating of not less than Satisfactory on each such institution's most recent examinations under the Community Reinvestment Act. We have made a financial holding company election and currently engage in our insurance agency activities through the broader authority available to financial holding companies.
If we fail to continue to meet any of the requirements for financial holding company status, we may be required to enter into an agreement with the Federal Reserve to comply with all applicable capital and management requirements within a certain period of time or lose our financial holding company designation, which could also result in a requirement to divest of any businesses for which a financial holding company election was required. In addition, the Federal Reserve may place limitations on our ability to conduct the broader financial activities permissible for financial holding companies during any period of noncompliance.
Volcker Rule. Section 13 of the Bank Holding Company Act, commonly known as the "Volcker Rule," has generally prohibited insured depository institutions and their affiliates from sponsoring or acquiring an ownership interest in certain investment funds, including hedge funds and private equity funds. The Volcker Rule also places restrictions on proprietary trading. EGRRCPA exempts insured depository institutions with $10 billion or less in total consolidated assets from the Volcker Rule, and the Federal Reserve has effectively extended the exemption to bank holding companies.
Safe and Sound Banking Practices. Bank holding companies are not permitted to engage in unsafe and unsound banking practices. For example, the Federal Reserve's Regulation Y generally requires a bank holding company to provide the Federal Reserve with prior notice of any redemption or repurchase of its own equity securities, if the consideration to be paid, together with the consideration paid for any repurchases or redemptions in the preceding year, is equal to 10.0% or more of the bank holding company's consolidated net worth. The Federal Reserve may oppose the transaction if it believes that the transaction would constitute an unsafe or unsound practice or would violate any law or regulation. In certain circumstances, the Federal Reserve could take the position that paying a dividend would constitute an unsafe or unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has broad authority to prohibit activities of bank holding companies and their nonbanking subsidiaries which represent unsafe and unsound banking practices, result in breaches of fiduciary duty or which constitute violations of laws or regulations, and can assess civil money penalties or impose enforcement action for such activities.
Origin Bank is a commercial bank chartered under the laws of the State of Louisiana and is a member of the Federal Reserve System. In addition, its deposits are insured by the FDIC to the maximum extent permitted by law. As a result, Origin Bank is subject to extensive regulation, supervision and examination by the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions and the Federal Reserve. As an insured depository institution, the bank is subject to regulation by the FDIC, although the Federal Reserve is the Bank's primary federal regulator. Finally, Origin Bank is also subject to secondary oversight by state banking authorities in other states in which it maintains banking offices. The bank regulatory agencies have the power to enforce compliance with applicable banking laws and regulations. These requirements and restrictions include requirements to maintain reserves against deposits, restrictions on the nature and amount of loans that may be made and the interest that may be charged thereon and restrictions relating to investments and other activities of Origin Bank.
Capital Adequacy Requirements. The Federal Reserve and Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions monitor the capital adequacy of Origin Bank by using a combination of risk-based guidelines and leverage ratios similar to those applied at the holding company level. These agencies consider the bank's capital levels when taking action on various types of applications and when conducting supervisory activities related to the safety and soundness of the bank and the banking system. Under the revised capital rules which became effective on January 1, 2015, Origin Bank is required to maintain four minimum capital standards: (1) a leverage ratio of at least 4.0%, (2) a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 4.5%, (3) a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.0%, and (4) a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%. The capital rules also require FDIC-insured banks to maintain a capital conservation buffer above the minimum capital requirements to avoid certain restrictions on capital distributions and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. The capital conservation buffer must be composed solely of common equity Tier 1 capital. When fully phased in on January 1, 2019, the capital conservation buffer requirement will effectively require banking organizations to maintain regulatory risk-based capital ratios at least 2.5% above the minimum risk-based capital requirements.
Banks (and bank holding companies) with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets may be exempt from the risk-based and leverage capital requirements as well as the capital conservation buffer if the federal banking agencies finalize a rule on the CBLR and if the banks meet the requirements of the rule. EGRRCPA required the agencies to establish this ratio within a range of 8% to 10%. The agencies proposed a rule with a 9% CBLR that would be available to banking firms under the $10 billion threshold provided that certain assets, liabilities and off-balance sheet items were below certain ceilings.
These capital requirements are minimum requirements. The Federal Reserve or Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions may also set higher capital requirements if warranted by the risk profile of Origin Bank, economic conditions impacting its markets or other circumstances particular to the bank. For example, Federal Reserve guidance provides that higher capital may be required to take adequate account of, among other things, interest rate risk and the risks posed by concentrations of credit, nontraditional activities or securities trading activities. In addition, the Federal Reserve's prompt corrective action regulations discussed below may, in effect, increase the minimum regulatory capital ratios for banking organizations. Failure to meet capital guidelines could subject Origin Bank to a variety of enforcement remedies, including issuance of a capital directive, restrictions on business activities and other measures under the Federal Reserve's prompt corrective action regulations.
Corrective Measures for Capital Deficiencies. The federal banking regulators are required by the Federal Deposit Insurance Act to take "prompt corrective action" with respect to capital-deficient banks that are FDIC-insured. For this purpose, a bank is placed in one of the following five capital tiers: "well capitalized," "adequately capitalized," "undercapitalized," "significantly undercapitalized" and "critically undercapitalized." The bank's capital tier depends upon how its capital levels compare with various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation.
To be well capitalized, a bank must have a total risk-based capital ratio of at least 10.0%, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 8.0%, a common equity Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of at least 6.5%, and a leverage ratio of at least 5.0%, and must not be subject to any written agreement, order or directive requiring it to maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. At December 31, 2018, Origin Bank met the requirements to be categorized as well capitalized under the prompt corrective action framework currently in effect. The pending CBLR proposal would treat a bank that met its requirements as well capitalized without reference to any of the current ratios.
As a bank's capital decreases, the enforcement authority of its regulators becomes more severe. Banks that are adequately, but not well, capitalized may not accept, renew or rollover brokered deposits except with a waiver from the FDIC and are subject to restrictions on the interest rates that can be paid on its deposits. The Federal Reserve's prompt corrective action regulations also generally prohibit a bank from making any capital distributions (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its parent holding company if the bank would thereafter be undercapitalized. Undercapitalized banks are also subject to growth limitations, may not accept, renew or rollover brokered deposits, and are required to submit a capital restoration plan. The Federal Reserve may not accept such a plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the bank's capital. Significantly undercapitalized banks may be subject to a number of requirements and restrictions, including orders to sell sufficient shares or obligations to become adequately capitalized, limitations on asset growth, and cessation of receipt of deposits from correspondent banks. Generally, subject to a narrow exception, the FDIC must appoint a receiver or conservator for an institution that is critically undercapitalized. The capital classification of a bank also affects the bank's ability to engage in certain activities and the deposit insurance premiums paid by the bank.
Bank Mergers. Section 18(c) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, known as the "Bank Merger Act," requires the written approval of a bank's primary federal regulator before the bank may (1) acquire through merger or consolidation, (2) purchase or otherwise acquire the assets of, or (3) assume the deposit liabilities of, another bank. The Bank Merger Act prohibits the reviewing agency from approving any proposed merger transaction that would result in a monopoly, or would further a combination or conspiracy to monopolize or to attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any part of the United States. Similarly, the Bank Merger Act prohibits the reviewing agency from approving a proposed merger transaction the effect of which in any section of the country may be substantially to lessen competition, or to tend to create a monopoly, or which in any other manner would be in restraint of trade. An exception may be made in the case of a merger transaction the effect of which would be to substantially lessen competition, tend to create a monopoly, or otherwise restrain trade, if the reviewing agency finds that the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served.
In every proposed merger transaction, the reviewing agency must also consider the financial and managerial resources and future prospects of the existing and proposed institutions, the convenience and needs of the community to be served, and the effectiveness of each insured depository institution involved in the proposed merger transaction in combating money-laundering activities.
Branching. Under Louisiana law, Origin Bank is permitted to establish additional branch offices within Louisiana, subject to the approval of the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions. As a result of the Dodd-Frank Act, the Bank may also establish additional branch offices outside of Louisiana, subject to prior regulatory approval, so long as the laws of the state where the branch is to be located would permit a state bank chartered in that state to establish a branch. Any new branch, whether located inside or outside of Louisiana, must also be approved by the Federal Reserve, as the Bank's primary federal regulator. Origin Bank may also establish offices in other states by merging with banks or by purchasing branches of other banks in other states, subject to certain restrictions.
Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders. Federal law strictly limits the ability of banks to engage in transactions with their affiliates, including their bank holding companies. Sections 23A and 23B of the Federal Reserve Act, and Federal Reserve's Regulation W, impose quantitative limits, qualitative standards and collateral requirements on certain transactions by a bank with, or for the benefit of, its affiliates. Generally, Sections 23A and 23B (1) limit the extent to which the bank or its subsidiaries may engage in "covered transactions" with any one affiliate to an amount equal to 10% of the bank's capital stock and surplus, and limit the aggregate of all such transactions with all affiliates to an amount equal to 20%
of its capital stock and surplus, and (2) require that all such transactions be on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable, to the bank or subsidiary as those that would be provided to a non-affiliate. The term "covered transaction" includes the making of loans to an affiliate, the purchase of assets from an affiliate, the issuance of a guarantee on behalf of an affiliate, and several other types of transactions.
The Dodd-Frank Act expanded the coverage and scope of the limitations on affiliate transactions within a banking organization, including an expansion of what types of transactions are covered transactions to include credit exposures related to derivatives, repurchase agreements and securities lending arrangements and an increase in the amount of time for which collateral requirements regarding covered transactions must be satisfied.
Federal law also limits a bank's authority to extend credit to its directors, executive officers and 10% stockholders, as well as to entities controlled by such persons. Among other things, extensions of credit to insiders are required to be made on terms that are substantially the same as, and follow credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than, those prevailing for comparable transactions with unaffiliated persons. Also, the terms of such extensions of credit may not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features and may not exceed certain limitations on the amount of credit extended to such persons, individually and in the aggregate, which limits are based, in part, on the amount of the bank's capital. Loans to senior executive officers of a bank are subject to additional restrictions. Insiders may be subject to enforcement actions for accepting loans in violation of applicable restrictions.
Regulatory Restrictions on Dividends. Origin Bank is subject to certain restrictions on dividends under federal and state laws, regulations and policies. In general, Origin Bank may pay dividends to us without the approval of the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions so long as the amount of the dividend does not exceed the bank's net profits earned during the current year combined with its retained net profits of the immediately preceding year. The bank is required to obtain the approval of the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions for any amount in excess of this threshold. In addition, under federal law, Origin Bank may not pay any dividend to us if it is undercapitalized or the payment of the dividend would cause it to become undercapitalized. The Federal Reserve may further restrict the payment of dividends by requiring the bank to maintain a higher level of capital than would otherwise be required to be adequately capitalized for regulatory purposes. Under the capital rules (and before the establishment of the CBLR), the failure to maintain an adequate capital conservation buffer, as discussed above, may also result in dividend restrictions. Moreover, if, in the opinion of the Federal Reserve, Origin Bank is engaged in an unsound practice (which could include the payment of dividends), the Federal Reserve may require, generally after notice and hearing, the bank to cease such practice. The Federal Reserve has indicated that paying dividends that deplete a depository institution's capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe banking practice. The Federal Reserve has also issued guidance providing that a bank generally should pay dividends only when (1) the bank's net income available to common stockholders over the past year has been sufficient to fully fund the dividends and (2) the prospective rate of earnings retention appears consistent with the bank's capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition.
Incentive Compensation Guidance. The federal banking agencies have issued comprehensive guidance on incentive compensation policies intended to ensure that the incentive compensation policies of banking organizations do not undermine the safety and soundness of those organizations by encouraging excessive risk-taking. The incentive compensation guidance sets expectations for banking organizations concerning their incentive compensation arrangements and related risk management, control and governance processes. The incentive compensation guidance, which covers all employees that have the ability to materially affect the risk profile of an organization, either individually or as part of a group, is based upon three primary principles: (1) balanced risk- taking incentives, (2) compatibility with effective controls and risk management and (3) strong corporate governance. Any deficiencies in compensation practices that are identified may be incorporated into the organization's supervisory ratings, which can affect its ability to make acquisitions or take other actions. In addition, under the incentive compensation guidance, a banking organization's federal supervisor may initiate enforcement action if the organization's incentive compensation arrangements pose a risk to the safety and soundness of the organization. Further, the capital conservation buffer described above would limit discretionary bonus payments to bank executives if the institution's regulatory capital ratios failed to exceed certain thresholds. The scope and content of the U.S. banking regulators' policies on executive compensation are continuing to develop and evolve. The agencies (together with certain other federal agencies) proposed a regulation in 2016 on incentive compensation (as required by the Dodd-Frank Act) but have not finalized it.
Deposit Insurance Assessments. FDIC-insured banks are required to pay deposit insurance assessments to the FDIC. The amount of the assessment is based on the size of the bank's assessment base, which is equal to its average consolidated total assets less its average tangible equity, and its risk classification under an FDIC risk-based assessment system. The FDIC has revised its methodology for determining assessments from time to time. The current methodology, which has been in place since the third quarter of 2016, has a range of assessment rates from three basis points to 30 basis points on insured
deposits. All insured depository institutions with the exception of large and complex banking organizations are assigned to one of three risk categories based on their composite CAMELS ratings. Each of the three risk categories has a range of rates, and the rate for a particular institution is determined based on seven financial ratios and the weighted average of its component CAMELS ratings. The FDIC may adjust assessment rates downward as the reserve ratio of the Deposit Insurance Fund exceeds 2.0% and higher thresholds. The FDIC can also impose special assessments in certain instances. If there are additional bank or financial institution failures or if the FDIC otherwise determines to increase assessment rates, Origin Bank may be required to pay higher FDIC insurance premiums. In addition, all FDIC-insured institutions are required to pay assessments to the FDIC to fund interest payments on bonds issued by the Financing Corporation, an agency of the federal government established to recapitalize the predecessor to the Deposit Insurance Fund. These assessments will continue until the bonds mature between now and 2019.
Community Reinvestment Act. The Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA") and the related regulations are intended to encourage banks to help meet the credit needs of their entire assessment area, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with the safe and sound operations of such banks. These regulations also provide for regulatory assessment of a bank's CRA performance record when considering applications to establish branches, merger applications and applications to acquire the assets and assume the liabilities of another bank. The CRA requires federal banking agencies to make public their ratings of banks' performance under the CRA. In the case of a bank holding company transaction, the CRA performance record of the subsidiary banks of the bank holding companies involved in the transaction are reviewed in connection with the filing of an application to acquire ownership or control of shares or assets of a bank or to merge with any other bank holding company. An unsatisfactory CRA record could substantially delay approval or result in denial of an application. In addition, a financial holding company may face limitations on activities and acquisitions if its subsidiary depository institutions do not have a least a Satisfactory rating. Origin Bank received a Satisfactory rating in its most recent CRA examination.
Financial Modernization. Under the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, banks may establish financial subsidiaries to engage, subject to limitations on investment, in activities that are financial in nature, other than insurance underwriting as principal, insurance company portfolio investment, real estate development, real estate investment, annuity issuance and merchant banking activities. To do so, a bank must be well capitalized, well managed and have a CRA rating from its primary federal regulator of Satisfactory or better. Subsidiary banks of financial holding companies or banks with financial subsidiaries must remain well capitalized and well managed in order to continue to engage in activities that are financial in nature without regulatory actions or restrictions. Such actions or restrictions could include divestiture of the financial subsidiary or subsidiaries. In addition, a financial holding company or a bank may not acquire a company that is engaged in activities that are financial in nature unless each of the subsidiary banks of the financial holding company or the bank has a CRA rating of Satisfactory of better.
Concentrated Commercial Real Estate Lending Regulations. The federal banking regulatory agencies have promulgated guidance governing financial institutions with concentrations in commercial real estate lending. The guidance provides that a bank may have a concentration in commercial real estate lending if (1) total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represent 100.0% or more of total capital or (2) total commercial real estate loans represent 300.0% or more of the bank's total capital and the outstanding balance of the bank's commercial real estate loan portfolio has increased 50% or more during the prior 36 months. If a concentration is present, the bank will be subject to further regulatory scrutiny with respect to its risk management practices for commercial real estate lending. At December 31, 2017, Origin Bank's total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land represented less than 100% of the bank's total capital, and its total commercial real estate loans represented less than 300% of the bank's total capital.
Consumer Laws and Regulations. Origin Bank is subject to numerous laws and regulations intended to protect consumers in transactions with the bank. These laws include, among others, laws regarding unfair, deceptive and abusive acts and practices, state usury laws and federal consumer protection statutes. These federal laws include the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Credit Reporting Act, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the Real Estate Procedures Act of 1974, the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, the Truth in Lending Act and the Truth in Savings Act, among others. Many states and local jurisdictions have consumer protection laws analogous and in addition to those enacted under federal law. These laws and regulations mandate certain disclosure requirements and regulate the manner in which financial institutions must deal with customers when taking deposits, making loans and conducting other types of transactions. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could give rise to regulatory sanctions, customer rescission rights, action by state and local attorneys general and civil or criminal liability.
In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act created the Bureau, which has broad authority to regulate the offering and provision of consumer financial products. The Bureau has authority to promulgate regulations, issue orders, guidance, interpretations
and policy statements, conduct examinations and bring enforcement actions with regard to consumer financial products and services. In general, banks with assets of $10 billion or less, such as Origin Bank, will continue to be examined for consumer compliance, and subject to enforcement actions, by their primary federal regulator, in our case the Federal Reserve. However, the Bureau may participate in examinations of these smaller institutions on a "sampling basis" and may refer potential enforcement actions against such institutions to their primary federal regulators. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and regulations that are stricter than those regulations promulgated by the Bureau, and state attorneys general are permitted to enforce certain consumer protection rules adopted by the Bureau against certain institutions.
Mortgage Lending Rules. The Dodd-Frank Act authorized the Bureau to establish certain minimum standards for the origination of residential mortgages, including a determination of the borrower's ability to repay. Under the Dodd-Frank Act, financial institutions may not make a residential mortgage loan unless they make a "reasonable and good faith determination" that the consumer has a "reasonable ability" to repay the loan. The Dodd-Frank Act allows borrowers to raise certain defenses to foreclosure but provides a presumption or rebuttable presumption of compliance for loans that are "qualified mortgages." The Bureau has also issued regulations that, among other things, specify the types of income and assets that may be considered in the ability-to-repay determination, the permissible sources for income verification, and the required methods of calculating the loan's monthly payments. These regulations extend the requirement that creditors verify and document a borrower's income and assets to include a requirement to verify all information that creditors rely on in determining repayment ability. The rules also define "qualified mortgages" based on adherence to certain underwriting standards - for example, a borrower's debt-to-income ratio may not exceed 43.0% - and certain restrictions on loan terms. Points and fees are subject to a relatively stringent cap, and the terms include a wide array of payments that may be made in the course of closing a loan. Certain loans, including interest-only loans and negative amortization loans, cannot be qualified mortgages. Also, the Dodd-Frank Act and the Bureau's final rule on loan originator compensation prohibit certain compensation payments to loan originators and the steering of consumers to loans not in their interest, particularly if the loans will result in greater compensation for a loan originator. The Dodd-Frank Act and the Bureau's implementing regulations also impose additional disclosure requirements with respect to the origination and sale of residential mortgages. EGRRCPA modifies certain of these requirements by, among other things, creating a safe harbor from the ability-to-repay standards for certain mortgage loans made by a bank with less than $10 billion in total consolidated assets.
Anti-Money Laundering and OFAC. The Bank Secrecy Act requires federal savings associations and other financial institutions to establish a risk-based system of internal controls reasonably designed to prevent money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The principal requirements for an insured depository institution include (i) establishment of an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) establishment of a "know your customer" program involving due diligence to confirm the identity of persons seeking to open accounts and to deny accounts to those persons unable to demonstrate their identities; (iii) the filing of currency transaction reports for deposits and withdrawals of large amounts of cash; (iv) additional precautions for accounts sought and managed for non-U.S. persons; and (v) verification and certification of money laundering risk with respect to private banking and foreign correspondent banking relationships. For many of these tasks a bank must keep records to be made available to its primary federal regulator. Anti- money laundering rules and policies are developed by a bureau within the U.S. Department of the Treasury, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, but compliance by individual institutions is overseen by its primary federal regulator, in the Bank's case, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.
The Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC") administers laws and Executive Orders that prohibit U.S. entities from engaging in transactions with certain prohibited parties. OFAC publishes lists of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts, known as Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons. Generally, if a bank identifies a transaction, account or wire transfer relating to a person or entity on an OFAC list, it must freeze the account or block the transaction, file a suspicious activity report and notify the appropriate authorities.
Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations and they must consider an institution's compliance in connection with the regulatory review of applications, including applications for bank mergers and acquisitions. Failure of a financial institution to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing and comply with OFAC sanctions, or to comply with relevant laws and regulations, could have serious legal, reputational and financial consequences for the institution.
Privacy. Federal law and regulations limit the ability of banks and other financial institutions to disclose non-public information about consumers to non-affiliated third parties. These limitations require disclosure of privacy policies to consumers and, in some circumstances, allow consumers to prevent disclosure of certain personal information to a non-affiliated third party. These regulations affect how consumer information is transmitted through financial services companies and conveyed to outside vendors. In addition, consumers may also prevent disclosure of certain information among affiliated companies that is assembled or used to determine eligibility for a product or service, such as that shown on consumer credit reports and asset and income information from applications. Consumers also have the option to direct banks and other financial institutions not to share information about transactions and experiences with affiliated companies for the purpose of marketing products or services. In addition to applicable federal privacy regulations, Origin Bank is subject to certain state privacy laws.
Federal Home Loan Bank System. Origin Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, which is one of the 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks composing the Federal Home Loan Bank system. The Federal Home Loan Banks make loans to their member banks in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Federal Home Loan Bank system and the boards of directors of each regional Federal Home Loan Bank. Any advances from a Federal Home Loan Bank must be secured by specified types of collateral, and all long-term advances may be obtained only for the purpose of providing funds for residential housing finance. As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, Origin Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. All loans, advances and other extensions of credit made by the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas to Origin Bank are secured by a portion of the respective mortgage loan portfolio, certain other investments and the capital stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas held by Origin Bank.
Enforcement Powers. The bank regulatory agencies have broad enforcement powers, including the power to terminate deposit insurance and impose substantial fines and other civil and criminal penalties. Failure to comply with applicable laws, regulations and supervisory agreements, breaches of fiduciary duty or the maintenance of unsafe and unsound conditions or practices could subject us or our subsidiaries, including Origin Bank, as well as their respective officers, directors, and other institution-affiliated parties, to administrative sanctions and potentially substantial civil money penalties.
FDIC Conservatorship or Receivership. The bank regulatory agencies may appoint the FDIC as conservator or receiver for a bank (or the FDIC may appoint itself, under certain circumstances) if any one or more of a number of circumstances exist, including, without limitation, the fact that the bank is undercapitalized and has no reasonable prospect of becoming adequately capitalized, fails to become adequately capitalized when required to do so, fails to submit a timely and acceptable capital restoration plan or materially fails to implement an accepted capital restoration plan.
Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies The commercial banking business is affected not only by general economic conditions but also by U.S. fiscal policy and the monetary policies of the Federal Reserve. Some of the instruments of monetary policy available to the Federal Reserve include changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings, the fluctuating availability of borrowings at the "discount window," open market operations, the imposition of and changes in reserve requirements against member banks' deposits and certain borrowings by banks and their affiliates and assets of foreign branches. These policies influence to a significant extent the overall growth of bank loans, investments, and deposits and the interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. We cannot predict the nature of future fiscal and monetary policies or the effect of these policies on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans or future prospects.
Impact of Current Laws and Regulations
The cumulative effect of these laws and regulations, while providing certain benefits, adds significantly to the cost of our operations and thus has a negative impact on our profitability. There has also been a notable expansion in recent years of financial service providers that are not subject to the examination, oversight, and other rules and regulations to which we are subject. Those providers, because they are not so highly regulated, may have a competitive advantage over us and may continue to draw large amounts of funds away from traditional banking institutions, with a continuing adverse effect on the banking industry in general.
Future Legislation and Regulatory Reform In light of current conditions and the market outlook for continuing weak economic conditions, regulators have increased their focus on the regulation of financial institutions. From time to time, various legislative and regulatory initiatives are introduced in Congress and state legislatures. New regulations and statutes are regularly proposed that contain wide-ranging proposals for altering the structures, regulations and competitive
relationships of financial institutions operating in the United States. We cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed regulation or statute will be adopted or the extent to which our business may be affected by any new regulation or statute. Future legislation, regulation and policies, and the effects of that legislation and regulation and those policies, may have a significant influence on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans or future prospects and the overall growth and distribution of loans, investments and deposits. Such legislation, regulation and policies have had a significant effect on the operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans and future prospects of commercial banks in the past and are expected to continue to do so.
Item 1A. Risk Factors
We face many risks and uncertainties, any one or more of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, prospects or the value of, or return on, an investment in our common stock. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all other information included and incorporated by reference in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained in Item 8 of this report. We believe the risks described below are material to us as of the date of this report but these risks are not the only risks that we face. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could also be affected by additional risks that apply to all financial services companies or companies operating in the United States and our specific geographic markets, as well as other risks that are not currently known to us or that we currently consider to be immaterial to our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected. Further, to the extent that any of the information in this report constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below also are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf.
Risks Related to Our Business
We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that the principal of, or interest on, a loan will not be repaid timely or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting a loan will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. In addition, we are exposed to risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, and risks inherent in dealing with individual loans and borrowers. The creditworthiness of a borrower is affected by many factors including local market conditions and general economic conditions. If the overall economic climate in the U.S., generally, or our market areas, specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses. Additional factors related to the credit quality of commercial loans include the quality of the management of the business and the borrower's ability both to properly evaluate changes in the supply and demand characteristics affecting our market for products and services and to effectively respond to those changes. Additional factors related to the credit quality of commercial real estate loans include tenant vacancy rates and the quality of management of the property.
Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries and our credit approval, review and administrative practices may not adequately reduce credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio may result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs, and may necessitate that we significantly increase our allowance for credit losses, each of which could adversely affect our net income. As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
As a business operating in the financial services industry, adverse conditions in the general business or economic environment could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to customers in the form of loans, borrowing money from customers in the form of deposits and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the U.S. Uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process, and the medium and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and U.S. economy, is a concern for businesses, consumers and investors in the U.S. In addition, economic conditions in foreign countries, including global political hostilities and uncertainty over the stability of
the euro currency, could affect the stability of global financial markets, which could hinder domestic economic growth. The current economic environment is characterized by interest rates at historically low levels, which impacts our ability to attract deposits and to generate attractive earnings through our investment portfolio and we are unable to predict changes in market interest rates. All of these factors are detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable. Our business is also significantly affected by monetary and related policies of the U.S. government and its agencies. Changes in any of these policies are influenced by macroeconomic conditions and other factors that are beyond our control. Adverse economic conditions and government policy responses to such conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.
Real estate values in many Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi markets have experienced periods of fluctuation over the last five years, and the market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time. As of December 31, 2018, $2.29 billion, or 60.4%, of our total loans was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary component of collateral. We also make loans secured by real estate as a supplemental source of collateral. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, and could result in losses that adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operation. Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity in our market areas could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Collateral may have to be sold for less than the outstanding balance of the loan, which could result in losses on such loans. Such declines and losses could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and the loss of any these individuals could adversely impact our business or reputation.
Our success depends in large part on the performance of our key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified senior and middle management and other skilled employees. Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. We may not be successful in retaining our key employees, and the unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could have an adverse effect on our business because of their skills, knowledge of our primary markets, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. If the services of any of our key personnel should become unavailable for any reason, we may not be able to identify and hire qualified persons on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to attract and retain profitable bankers is critical to the success of our business strategy.
Our ability to retain and grow our loans, deposits and fee income depends upon the business generation capabilities, reputation and relationship management skills of our bankers. If we were to lose the services of any of our bankers, including profitable bankers employed by banks that we may acquire, to a new or existing competitor or otherwise, we may not be able to retain valuable relationships and some of our customers could choose to use the services of a competitor instead of our services.
Our growth strategy also relies on our ability to attract and retain additional profitable bankers. We may face difficulties in recruiting and retaining bankers of our desired caliber, including as a result of competition from other financial institutions. In particular, many of our competitors are significantly larger with greater financial resources, and may be able to offer more attractive compensation packages and broader career opportunities. Additionally, we may incur significant expenses and expend significant time and resources on training, integration and business development before we are able to determine whether a new banker will be profitable or effective. If we are unable to attract and retain profitable bankers, or if our bankers fail to meet our expectations in terms of customer relationships and profitability, we may be unable to execute our business strategy, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The geographic concentration of our markets in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi makes us more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy.
Unlike larger financial institutions that are more geographically diversified, we are a regional banking franchise concentrated in the Interstate 20 Corridor between the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area and Jackson, Mississippi, as well as in Houston, Texas. As of December 31, 2018, 51.4% of our total loans (by dollar amount) were made to borrowers who reside or conduct business in Texas, 31.5% attributable to Louisiana and 17.1% attributable to Mississippi, and substantially all of our real estate loans are secured by properties located in these states. A deterioration in local economic conditions or in the residential or commercial real estate markets could have an adverse effect on the quality of our portfolio, the demand for our products and services, the ability of borrowers to timely repay loans, and the value of the collateral securing loans. If the population, employment or income growth in one of our markets is negative or slower than projected, income levels, deposits and real estate development could be adversely impacted. Some of our larger competitors that are more geographically diverse may be better able to manage and mitigate risks posed by adverse conditions impacting only local or regional markets.
Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to our other mortgage loans.
Our loan portfolio includes non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans for individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as real estate construction and development loans. As of December 31, 2018, our non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans totaled $779.5 million, or 20.4%, of our total loan portfolio. These loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service, which may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because the collateral securing these loans typically cannot be liquidated as easily as residential real estate because there are fewer potential purchasers of the collateral. Additionally, non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, charge-offs on non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio would require us to increase our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability, and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
A large portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial loans secured by receivables, inventory, equipment or other commercial collateral, the deterioration in value of which could expose us to credit losses.
As of December 31, 2018, approximately $1.27 billion, or 33.6%, of our total loans were commercial loans to businesses. In general, these loans are collateralized by general business assets, including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment and most are backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. These commercial loans are typically larger in amount than loans to individuals and, therefore, have the potential for larger losses on a single loan basis. Additionally, the repayment of commercial loans is subject to the ongoing business operations of the borrower. The collateral securing such loans generally includes movable property, such as equipment and inventory, which may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate, exposing us to increased credit risk. In addition, a portion of our customer base, including customers in the energy and real estate business, may be exposed to volatile businesses or industries which are sensitive to commodity prices or market fluctuations, such as energy prices. Accordingly, negative changes in commodity prices and real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of the collateral securing these loans. Significant adverse changes in the economy or local market conditions in which our commercial lending customers operate could cause rapid declines in loan collectability and the values associated with general business assets resulting in inadequate collateral coverage that may expose us to credit losses and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our loan portfolio contains a number of large loans to certain borrowers, and deterioration in the financial condition of these borrowers could have a significant adverse impact on our asset quality.
Our growth over the past several years has been partially attributable to our ability to originate and retain relatively large loans given our asset size. As of December 31, 2018, the size of our average loan held for investment was approximately $325,000. Further, as of December 31, 2018, our 20 largest borrowing relationships, excluding mortgage loans held for sale, represented 17.3% of our outstanding loan portfolio, and 10.0% of our total commitments to extend credit. Along with other risks inherent in our loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these
loans, the higher average size of our loans presents a risk to our lending operations. If any of our largest borrowers become unable to repay their loan obligations as a result of economic or market conditions or personal circumstances, our nonperforming loans and our provision for loan losses could increase significantly, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio and our earnings could decrease.
Our experience in the banking industry indicates that some portion of our loans will not be fully repaid in a timely manner or at all. Accordingly, we maintain an allowance for loan losses that represents management's judgment of probable losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. The level of the allowance reflects management's continuing evaluation of general economic conditions, diversification and seasoning of the loan portfolio, historic loss experience, identified credit problems, delinquency levels and adequacy of collateral. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is inherently highly subjective and requires us to make significant estimates of and assumptions regarding current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Inaccurate management assumptions, deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan losses and additional expenses may be incurred. At any time, we are likely to have loans in our portfolio that will result in losses but that have not been identified as nonperforming or potential problem credits. We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify deteriorating credits before they become nonperforming assets or that we will be able to limit or correctly estimate losses on those loans that are identified. In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their periodic examination, review the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses and may direct us to make additions to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examination. Changes in economic conditions or individual business or personal circumstances affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowance. Further, if actual charge-offs in future periods exceed the amounts allocated to the allowance for loan losses, we may need additional provision for loan losses to restore the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan losses for any reason, such increases could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may have exposure to tax liabilities that are larger than we anticipate.
The tax laws applicable to our business activities are subject to interpretation and may change over time. From time to time, legislative initiatives, such as corporate tax rate changes, which may impact our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our deferred tax assets or our tax positions or liabilities, may be enacted. The taxing authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our tax positions, which could increase our effective tax rate and harm our financial position and results of operations. In addition, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates or by changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles. We are subject to audit and review by U.S. federal and state tax authorities. Any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our financial position and results of operations. In addition, the determination of our provision for income taxes and other liabilities requires significant judgment by management. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.
The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers' ability to repay loans.
We focus our business development and marketing strategy primarily on small to medium-sized businesses. Small to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrower's ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small and medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loan. If general economic conditions negatively impact the markets in which we operate and small to medium-sized businesses are adversely affected or our borrowers are otherwise harmed by adverse business developments, this, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We face significant competition to attract and retain customers, which could impair our growth, decrease our profitability or result in loss of market share.
We operate in the highly competitive banking industry and face significant competition for customers from bank and non-bank competitors, particularly regional and nationwide institutions, in originating loans, attracting deposits and providing other financial services. Our competitors are generally larger and may have significantly more resources, greater name recognition, and more extensive and established branch networks or geographic footprints than we do. Because of their scale, many of these competitors can be more aggressive than we can on loan and deposit pricing. Also, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to continue to intensify due to financial institution consolidation; legislative, regulatory and technological changes; and the emergence of alternative banking sources.
Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors, including, among other things:
our ability to develop, maintain and build long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets;
our scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;
the rate at which we introduce new products and services relative to our competitors;
customer satisfaction with our level of service;
our ability to expand our market position;
industry and general economic trends; and
our ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology.
Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability. Our failure to compete effectively in our primary markets could cause us to lose market share and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business.
Our business plan emphasizes relationship banking. We have benefited from strong relationships with and among our customers. As a result, our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. Our growth over the past several years has depended on attracting new customers from competing financial institutions and increasing our market share, primarily by the involvement in our primary markets and word-of-mouth advertising, rather than on growth in the market for banking services in our primary markets. As such, we strive to enhance our reputation by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve and delivering superior service to our customers. If our reputation is negatively affected by the actions of our employees or otherwise, our existing relationships may be damaged. We could lose some of our existing customers, including groups of large customers who have relationships with each other, and we may not be successful in attracting new customers. Any of these developments could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our business has grown rapidly, and we may not be able to maintain our historical rate of growth, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our business has grown rapidly. Financial institutions that grow rapidly can experience significant difficulties as a result of rapid growth. Furthermore, our primary strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by acquisitions of banking teams or other financial institutions. We may be unable to execute on aspects of our growth strategy to sustain our historical rate of growth or we may be unable to grow at all. More specifically, we may be unable to generate sufficient new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances, obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth or find suitable banking teams or acquisition candidates. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition, may impede or prohibit the growth of our operations, the opening of new branches, and the consummation of acquisitions. Further, we may be unable to attract and retain experienced bankers, which could adversely affect our growth. The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to effectively manage growth, which is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to adapt existing credit, operational, technology and governance infrastructure to accommodate expanded operations. If we fail to build infrastructure sufficient to support rapid growth or fail to implement one or more
aspects of our strategy, we may be unable to maintain historical earnings trends, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth and expansion through de novo branching.
Our business strategy includes evaluating strategic opportunities to grow through de novo branching, and we believe that banking location expansion has been meaningful to our growth since inception. De novo branching carries with it certain potential risks, including significant startup costs and anticipated initial operating losses; an inability to gain regulatory approval; an inability to secure the services of qualified senior management to operate the de novo banking location and successfully integrate and promote our corporate culture; poor market reception for de novo banking locations established in markets where we do not have a preexisting reputation; challenges posed by local economic conditions; challenges associated with securing attractive locations at a reasonable cost; and the additional strain on management resources and internal systems and controls. Failure to adequately manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth through de novo branching could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in accounting policies, standards and interpretations.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") and other bodies that establish accounting standards periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards governing the preparation of our financial statements. Additionally, those bodies that establish and interpret the accounting standards (such as the FASB, SEC and banking regulators) may change prior interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. Changes resulting from these new standards may result in materially different financial results and may require that we change how we process, analyze and report financial information and that we change financial reporting controls.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The adoption of the ASU 2016-13 could result in an increase in the allowance for loan losses as a result of changing from an "incurred loss" model, which encompasses allowances for current known and inherent losses within the portfolio, to an "expected loss" model, which encompasses allowances for losses expected to be incurred over the life of the portfolio. Furthermore, ASU 2016-13 will necessitate the establishment of an allowance for expected credit losses for certain debt securities and other financial assets. The change in methodology may result in material changes in the Company's accounting for credit losses on financial instruments and create more volatility in the Company's level of allowance for loan losses. If the Company is required to materially increase its level of allowance for loan losses for any reason, such increase could adversely affect its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We may pursue acquisitions in the future, which could expose us to financial, execution and operational risks.
Although we plan to continue to grow our business organically, we may from time to time consider acquisition opportunities that we believe complement our activities and have the ability to enhance our profitability. Our acquisition activities could be material to our business and involve a number of risks, including those associated with:
the identification of suitable candidates for acquisition;
the diversion of management attention from the operation of our existing business to identify, evaluate and negotiate potential transactions;
the ability to attract funding to support additional growth within acceptable risk tolerances;
the use of inaccurate estimates and judgments to evaluate credit, operations, management and market risks with respect to the target institution or assets;
the ability to maintain asset quality;
the adequacy of due diligence and the potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities related to the acquisition;
the retention of customers and key personnel, including bankers;
the timing and uncertainty associated with obtaining necessary regulatory approvals;
the incurrence of an impairment of goodwill associated with an acquisition and adverse effects on our results of operations;
the ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses; and
the maintenance of adequate regulatory capital.
The market for acquisition targets is highly competitive, which may adversely affect our ability to find acquisition candidates that fit our strategy and standards at acceptable prices. We face significant competition in pursuing acquisition targets from other banks and financial institutions, many of which possess greater financial, human, technical and other resources than we do. Our ability to compete in acquiring target institutions will depend on our available financial resources to fund the acquisitions, including the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have and the liquidity and value of our common stock. In addition, increased competition may also drive up the acquisition consideration that we will be required to pay in order to successfully capitalize on attractive acquisition opportunities. To the extent that we are unable to find suitable acquisition targets, an important component of our growth strategy may not be realized.
Acquisitions of financial institutions also involve operational risks and uncertainties, such as unknown or contingent liabilities with no available manner of recourse, exposure to unexpected problems such as asset quality, the retention of key employees and customers, and other issues that could negatively affect our business. We may not be able to complete future acquisitions or, if completed, we may not be able to successfully integrate the operations, technology platforms, management, products and services of the entities that we acquire or to realize our attempts to eliminate redundancies. The integration process may also require significant time and attention from our management that would otherwise be directed toward servicing existing business and developing new business. Failure to successfully integrate the entities we acquire into our existing operations in a timely manner may increase our operating costs significantly and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of our book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future acquisition, and the carrying amount of any goodwill that we currently maintain or may acquire may be subject to impairment in future periods.
The markets in which we operate are susceptible to hurricanes and other natural disasters and adverse weather, which could result in a disruption of our operations and increases in loan losses.
A significant portion of our business is generated from markets that have been, and may continue to be, damaged by major hurricanes, floods, tropical storms, tornadoes and other natural disasters and adverse weather. Natural disasters can disrupt our operations, cause widespread property damage, and severely depress the local economies in which we operate. If the economies in our primary markets experience an overall decline as a result of a natural disaster, adverse weather, or other disaster, demand for loans and our other products and services could be reduced. In addition, the rates of delinquencies, foreclosures, bankruptcies and loan losses may increase substantially, as uninsured property losses or sustained job interruption or loss may materially impair the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that secures the loans could be materially and adversely affected by a disaster. A disaster could, therefore, result in decreased revenue and loan losses that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
New lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, we implement new lines of business, or offer new products and product enhancements as well as new services within our existing lines of business, and we will continue to do so in the future. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In implementing, developing or marketing new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services, we may invest significant time and resources, although we may not assign the appropriate level of resources or expertise necessary to make these new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services successful or to realize their expected benefits. Further, initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the ultimate implementation of a new line of business or offerings of new products, product enhancements or services. Furthermore, any new line of business, product, product enhancement or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or
offerings of new products, product enhancements or services could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management's decision-making and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is endemic to bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual Dodd-Frank Act stress testing and the Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we currently utilize stress testing for capital, credit and liquidity purposes and anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. We seek to mitigate this risk by performing back-testing to analyze the accuracy of these techniques and approaches. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.
We may be required to repurchase mortgage loans in some circumstances, which could diminish our liquidity.
Historically, we have originated whole mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market. When mortgage loans are sold in the secondary market, we are required to make customary representations and warranties to the purchasers about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. The mortgage loan sale agreements require us to repurchase or substitute mortgage loans or indemnify buyers against losses, in the event we breach these representations and warranties. In addition, we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans as a result of early payment default of the borrower on a mortgage loan. With respect to loans that are originated by us through our broker or correspondents, the remedies available against the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not be as broad as the remedies available to a purchaser of mortgage loans against us or the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not have the financial capacity to perform remedies that otherwise may be available. Therefore, if a purchaser enforces their remedies against us, we may not be able to recover losses from the originating broker or correspondent. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase and such demands are valid claims, it could diminish our liquidity, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We were not required to repurchase any material amount of mortgage loans sold into the secondary market during 2018, 2017 or 2016, although we were subject to and settled a material indemnification claim in the third quarter of 2017 related to loans sold into the secondary market by an entity we acquired in 2011.
Interest rate shifts could reduce net interest income.
The majority of our banking assets are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings and cash flows depend to a great extent upon the level of our net interest income, or the difference between the interest income we earn on loans, investments and other interest-earning assets, and the interest we pay on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Changes in interest rates can increase or decrease our net interest income, because different types of assets and liabilities may react differently, and at different times, to market interest rate changes. When interest-bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-earning assets in the same period, an increase in interest rates could reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest-earning assets mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could reduce net interest income. As of December 31, 2018, $2.27 billion, or 50.4%, of our interest-earning assets and $2.08 billion, or 63.8%, of our interest-bearing liabilities were variable rate, which indicates that we expect our variable rate assets to reprice more quickly than our variable rate liabilities. Our interest sensitivity profile was asset sensitive as of December 31, 2018, meaning that we estimate our net interest income would increase from rising interest rates and decline with falling interest rates.
Additionally, an increase in interest rates may, among other things, reduce the demand for loans and our ability to originate loans and decrease loan repayment rates. A decrease in the general level of interest rates may affect us through, among other things, increased prepayments on our loan portfolio and increased competition for deposits. Accordingly, changes in the level of market interest rates affect our net yield on interest-earning assets, loan origination volume, loan portfolio and our overall results. Although our asset-liability management strategy is designed to control and mitigate exposure to the risks related to changes in market interest rates, those rates are affected by many factors outside of our control, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, deflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, international disorder and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets.
Changes in interest rates may change the value of our mortgage servicing rights portfolio, which may increase the volatility of our earnings.
As a result of our mortgage servicing business, we have a portfolio of mortgage servicing rights on unpaid principal balances of $2.08 billion at December 31, 2018. A mortgage servicing right is the right to service a mortgage loan - collect principal, interest and escrow amounts - for a fee. We measure and carry our entire residential mortgage servicing rights using the fair value measurement method. Fair value is determined as the present value of estimated future net servicing income, calculated based on a number of variables, including assumptions about the likelihood of prepayment by borrowers.
The primary risk associated with mortgage servicing rights is that in a declining interest rate environment, they will likely lose a substantial portion of their value as a result of higher than anticipated prepayments. Moreover, if prepayments are greater than expected, the cash we receive over the life of the mortgage loans would be reduced. Conversely, these assets generally increase in value in a rising interest rate environment to the extent that prepayments are slower than previously estimated. An increase in the size of our mortgage servicing rights portfolio may increase our interest rate risk. At December 31, 2018, our mortgage servicing rights had a fair value of $25.1 million, compared to $24.2 million at December 31, 2017. Changes in fair value of our mortgage servicing rights are recorded to earnings in each period. Depending on the interest rate environment, it is possible that the fair value of our mortgage servicing rights may be reduced in the future. If such changes in fair value significantly reduce the carrying value of our mortgage servicing rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business, and we monitor our liquidity and manage our liquidity risk at the holding company and bank levels. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of our investment securities, the sale of loans, and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our most important source of funds is deposits. Deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. If customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments such as money market funds, we would lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Other primary sources of funds consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from the issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities to investors. Additional liquidity is provided by the ability to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas and the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. We also may borrow funds from third-party lenders, such as other financial institutions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in our primary market area or by one or more adverse regulatory actions against us.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, or to fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and could, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, because our primary asset at the holding company level is the bank, our liquidity at the holding company level depends primarily on our receipt of dividends from the bank. If the bank is unable to pay dividends to us for any reason, we may be unable to satisfy our holding company level obligations, which include funding operating expenses and debt service obligations.
We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, we may not be able to maintain regulatory compliance.
We face significant capital and other regulatory requirements as a financial institution. We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs, which could include the possibility of financing acquisitions. In addition, we, on a consolidated basis, and Origin Bank, on a stand-alone basis, must meet certain regulatory capital requirements and maintain sufficient liquidity in such amounts as the regulators may require from time to time. Importantly, regulatory capital requirements could increase from current levels, which could require us to raise additional capital or reduce our operations. Even if we satisfy all applicable regulatory capital minimums, our regulators could ask us to maintain capital levels which are significantly in excess of those minimums. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, including investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, market conditions and governmental activities, and on our financial condition and performance. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to maintain capital to meet regulatory requirements, we could be subject to enforcement actions or other regulatory consequences, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to additional credit and market risk.
We use interest rate swaps to help manage our interest rate risk from recorded financial assets and liabilities when they can be demonstrated to effectively hedge a designated asset or liability and the asset or liability exposes us to interest rate risk or risks inherent in customer related derivatives. We use other derivative financial instruments to help manage other economic risks, such as liquidity and credit risk, including exposures that arise from business activities that result in the receipt or payment of future known and uncertain cash amounts, the value of which are determined by interest rates. Our derivative financial instruments are used to manage differences in the amount, timing, and duration of our known or expected cash receipts principally related to our fixed rate loan assets. Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and routine monitoring, and is not a perfect science. As a result of interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. The existence of credit and market risk associated with our derivative instruments could adversely affect our net interest income and, therefore, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.
As of December 31, 2018, the fair value of our portfolio of available for sale investment securities was approximately $575.6 million, which included a net unrealized loss of approximately $3.4 million. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects. The process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary often requires complex, subjective judgments about whether there has been a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, whether management has the intent or ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security, and other relevant factors.
If we fail to maintain an effective system of disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results or prevent fraud.
Ensuring that we have adequate disclosure controls and procedures, including internal control over financial reporting, in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis, is costly and time-consuming and needs to be reevaluated frequently. Under applicable law, we must provide annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Our management may conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is not effective due to our failure to cure any identified material weakness or otherwise. Moreover, even if
our management concludes that our internal control over financial reporting is effective, our independent registered public accounting firm may not conclude that our internal control over financial reporting is effective. In the future, our independent registered public accounting firm may not be satisfied with our internal control over financial reporting or the level at which our controls are documented, designed, operated or reviewed, or it may interpret the relevant requirements differently from us. In addition, during the course of the evaluation, documentation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting, we may identify deficiencies that we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the deadline imposed by the SEC, for compliance with the requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Any deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting may also subject us to adverse regulatory consequences. If we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, as these standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may be unable to report our financial information on a timely basis, we may not be able to conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal control over financial reporting in accordance with applicable law, and we may suffer adverse regulatory consequences or violate applicable listing standards. In addition, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control over financial reporting, we could experience a loss of investor confidence in the reliability of our financial statements.
Material weaknesses in our financial reporting or internal controls could result in a material misstatement in our financial statements and negatively affect investor confidence.
A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. In connection with the preparation and audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2016, we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to the development of our allowance for loan losses, and we identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting relating to the determination of our accounting for income taxes. The material weakness related to our allowance for loan losses resulted from deficient management review controls and process level controls that did not provide for timely adjustments or recognition of losses on energy loans impaired due to collateral deterioration and resulted in adjustments to our allowance for loan losses to record additional reserves and adjust qualitative factors. The material weakness related to our accounting for income taxes resulted from inadequate controls surrounding the evaluation of deferred income tax assets and liabilities, including inadequate levels of monitoring and review, which resulted in an adjustment to our net deferred tax assets.
We have implemented measures that we believe are the appropriate actions to correct the material weaknesses. These measures include, among other things, the establishment of a formal allowance for a loan loss review committee responsible for the review and approval of changes in modeling assumptions and oversight of the allowance calculation process; enhancements to our allowance for loan losses model to further disaggregate our loan pools to allow for greater precision in calculations and review based on specific risks; the enhancement of our tax provision model and the segregation of duties of preparation and review of the model; and the engagement of independent advisers to reassess the design of our internal control over financial reporting as well as additional personnel with experience in the ongoing identification, design and implementation of internal control over financial reporting. We will continue to periodically test and update, as necessary, our internal control systems, including our financial reporting controls.
While we believe these measures have mitigated the risk related to the aforementioned internal control material weaknesses, we cannot be certain that, at some point in the future, another material weakness will not be identified or our internal control systems will not fail to detect a matter they are designed to prevent, and failure to remedy such material weaknesses could result in a material misstatement in our financial statements and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and results of operations. The identification of any additional material weakness could also result in investors losing confidence in our internal control systems and questioning our reported financial information, which, among other things, could have a negative impact on the trading price of our common stock. Additionally, we could become subject to increased regulatory scrutiny and a higher risk of stockholder litigation, which could result in significant additional expenses and require additional financial and management resources.
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs as well as service our customers better. Our future success will depend, at least in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer
demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our products and service offerings. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology enhancements or products, which could result in us not fully realizing the anticipated benefits from such new technology or require us to incur significant costs to remedy any such challenges in a timely manner.
Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products compared to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we may lose customers seeking new technology-driven products and services to the extent we are unable to provide such products and services.
We rely on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure, and a failure of these parties to perform for any reason could disrupt our operations.
Third parties provide key components of our business infrastructure such as data processing, internet connections, network access, core application processing, statement production and account analysis. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. Replacing vendors or addressing other issues with our third-party service providers could entail significant delay and expense. If we are unable to efficiently replace ineffective service providers, or if we experience a significant, sustained or repeated, system failure or service denial, it could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Unauthorized access, cyber-crime and other threats to data security may require significant resources, harm our reputation, and otherwise cause harm to our business.
We necessarily collect, use and hold personal and financial information concerning individuals and businesses with which we have a banking relationship. This information includes non-public, personally-identifiable information that is protected under applicable federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, certain of these data processing functions are not handled by us directly, but are outsourced to third party providers. Our facilities and systems, and those of our third party service providers, may be vulnerable to threats to data security, security breaches, acts of vandalism and other physical security threats, computer viruses or compromises, ransomware attacks, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other similar events. Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of our confidential business, employee or customer information, whether originating with us, our vendors or retail businesses, could severely damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of civil litigation and liability, require the payment of regulatory fines or penalties or undertaking of costly remediation efforts with respect to third parties affected by a security breach, disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
It is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk being posed by changing technologies, as well as criminal intent on committing cyber-crime. and controls employed by our information technology department and our other employees and vendors could prove inadequate Increasing sophistication of cyber-criminals and terrorists make keeping up with new threats difficult and could result in a breach. Cyber-security risks appear to be growing and, as a result, the cyber-resilience of banking organizations is of increased importance to federal and state banking agencies and other regulators. New or revised laws and regulations may significantly impact our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, the collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer and employee information, and current or planned business activities. Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could materially and adversely affect the Company's profitability. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of cyber incidents, including several well-publicized cyber-attacks that targeted other U.S. companies, including financial services companies much larger than us. These cyber incidents have been initiated from a variety of sources, including terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. As technology advances, the ability to initiate transactions and access data has also become more widely distributed among mobile devices, personal computers, automated teller machines, remote deposit capture sites and similar access points, some of which are not controlled or secured by us. It is possible that we could have exposure to liability and suffer losses as a result of a security breach or cyber-attack that occurred through no fault of the Company. Further, the probability of a successful
cyber-attack against us or one of our third party services providers cannot be predicted. As cyber threats continue to evolve and increase, we may be required to spend significant additional resources to continue to modify or enhance our protective and preventative measures or to investigate and remediate any information security vulnerabilities. Our systems and those of our third party vendors may also become vulnerable to damage or disruption due to circumstances beyond our or their control, such as from catastrophic events, power anomalies or outages, natural disasters, network failures, and viruses and malware.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.
In the course of our business, we may purchase real estate, or we may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Any significant environmental liabilities could cause an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.
Banking and other financial services companies, such as ours, rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support their day-to-day operations. Technology companies frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of our vendors, or other individuals or companies, may from time to time claim to hold intellectual property sold to us by our vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. If we are found to infringe one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, we may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase our operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, we participate in loans originated by other institutions, and we participate in syndicated transactions (including shared national credits) in which other lenders serve as the lead bank. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial institutions, financial service companies or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity, asset quality or other problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These problems, losses or defaults could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry
We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could subject us to regulatory action or penalties.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and legal requirements that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are not intended to protect our stockholders. Rather, these laws and regulations are intended to protect customers, depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund and the overall financial stability of the U.S., and not stockholders or counterparties. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividends or distributions that Origin Bank can pay to us, and that we can pay to our stockholders, and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP would require. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith effort or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, capital base and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive. All of these laws and regulations, and the supervisory framework applicable to our industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which may result in lower returns on equity, require us to raise additional capital, limit growth opportunities or result in regulatory restrictions.
Beginning January 1, 2015, we became subject to new rules designed to implement the recommendations with respect to regulatory capital standards, commonly known as Basel III, approved by the international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. The rules established a new regulatory capital standard based on common equity tier 1, increase the minimum tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and impose a capital conservation buffer of at least 2.5% of common equity tier 1 capital above the new minimum regulatory capital ratios, when fully phased in on January 1, 2019. The rules also changed the manner in which a number of our regulatory capital components are calculated, including deferred tax assets, and the risk weights applicable to certain asset categories. The Basel III rules generally require us to maintain greater amounts of regulatory capital than we were required to maintain prior to implementation of such rules and may also limit or restrict how we utilize our capital. Increased regulatory capital requirements (and the associated compliance costs) whether due to the adoption of new laws and regulations, changes in existing laws and regulations, or more expansive or aggressive interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may require us to raise additional capital, or impact our ability to repurchase shares of capital stock, pay dividends or pay compensation to our executives, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the value of our common stock. If Origin Bank does not meet minimum capital requirements, it will be subject to prompt corrective action by the Federal Reserve. Prompt corrective action can include progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions. Failure to exceed the capital conservation buffer will result in certain limitations on dividends, capital repurchases, and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. Even if we meet minimum capital requirements, it is possible that our regulators may ask us to raise additional capital.
We face a risk of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The federal Bank Secrecy Act, USA Patriot Act of 2001 and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the Treasury to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal bank regulatory agencies, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. Federal bank regulatory agencies and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure by Origin Bank to perform satisfactorily on its Community Reinvestment Act evaluations could make it more difficult for our business to grow.
The performance of a bank under the Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA"), in meeting the credit needs of its community is a factor that must be taken into consideration when the federal banking agencies evaluate applications related to mergers and acquisitions, as well as branch opening and relocations. If Origin Bank is unable to maintain at least a "Satisfactory" CRA rating, our ability to complete the acquisition of another financial institution or open a new branch will be adversely impacted. If Origin Bank received an overall CRA rating of less than "Satisfactory", the Federal Reserve would not re-evaluate its rating until its next CRA examination, which may not occur for several more years, and it is possible that a low CRA rating would not improve in the future.
Increases in Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance premiums could adversely affect our earnings and results of operations.
The deposits of Origin Bank are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ("FDIC") up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject it to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments. The bank's regular assessments are determined by the level of its assessment base and its risk classification, which is based on its regulatory capital levels and the level of supervisory concern that it poses. Moreover, the FDIC has the unilateral power to change deposit insurance assessment rates and the manner in which deposit insurance is calculated and also to charge special assessments to FDIC-insured institutions. The FDIC utilized all of these powers during the financial crisis for the purpose of restoring the reserve ratios of the Deposit Insurance Fund. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or premiums, or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
Risks Related to Investing in Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult for you to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, which may make it difficult for you to resell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired. There are many factors that may impact the market price and trading volume of our common stock, including, without limitation:
•actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition or asset quality;
•changes in economic or business conditions;
the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve, or in laws or regulations affecting us;
•the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
•changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
•the number of securities analysts covering us;
publication of research reports about us, our competitors, or the financial services industry generally, or changes in, or failure to meet, securities analysts' estimates of our financial and operating performance, or lack of research reports by industry analysts or ceasing of coverage;
•changes in market valuations or earnings of companies that investors deem comparable to us;
•the trading volume of our common stock;
•future issuances of our common stock or other securities;
•future sales of our common stock by us or our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders;
•additions or departures of key personnel;
•perceptions in the marketplace regarding our competitors and us;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving our competitors or us;
other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services; and
other news, announcements or disclosures (whether by us or others) related to us, our competitors, our core market or the financial services industry.
In particular, the realization of any of the risks described in this "Risk Factors" section of this report could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock and cause the value of your investment to decline. The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks have experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases have been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume of our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
We are an "emerging growth company," and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.
We are an "emerging growth company," as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not "emerging growth companies." These include, without limitation, an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.
We could be an emerging growth company until December 31, 2023, although we could lose that status sooner if our gross revenues exceed $1.07 billion, if we issue more than $1.07 billion in non-convertible debt in a three year period, or if the market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeds $700.0 million as of any June 30 before that time, in which case we would no longer be an emerging growth company as of the following December 31. Investors may find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.
Our dividend policy may change without notice, and our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions, and we may not pay dividends in the future. We are dependent on dividends from the Bank to meet our financial obligations and pay dividends to our stockholders.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such cash dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, change the amount or frequency of dividends or discontinue the payment of dividends entirely at any time without notice to our stockholders. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited on account of our outstanding indebtedness as we generally must make payments on our junior subordinated debentures and our outstanding indebtedness before any dividends can be paid on our common stock.
Additionally, because our primary asset is our investment in the stock of Origin Bank, we are dependent upon dividends from the bank to pay our operating expenses, satisfy our obligations and pay dividends on our common stock, and the bank's ability to pay dividends on its common stock will substantially depend upon its earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate and other factors deemed relevant by its board of directors. In addition, our and the Bank's ability to declare and pay dividends depends on numerous laws and banking regulations and guidance that limit our and Origin Bank's ability to pay dividends, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy and dividends. As a consequence of these various limitations and restrictions, we may not be able to make, or may have to reduce or eliminate, the payment of dividends on our common stock. Any change in the level of our dividends or the suspension of the payment thereof could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
Securities analysts may not continue coverage on us.
The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these securities analysts, and they may not continue to cover us. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to publish regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. If we are covered by securities analysts and are the subject of an unfavorable report, the price of our common stock may decline.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
Your investment in our common stock will not be a bank deposit and will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. Your investment will be subject to investment risk, and you must be capable of affording the loss of your entire investment.
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
Item 2. Properties
At December 31, 2018, our executive offices and those of Origin Bank were located at 500 South Service Road East, Ruston, Louisiana 71270 and we operate through 41 banking centers in Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi. At December 31, 2018, our primary offices outside of Louisiana were located in Dallas, Texas, Houston, Texas and Ridgeland, Mississippi. At December 31, 2018, Origin Bank owned its main office building and 24 of its banking centers, as well as a controlling interest in its operations center. The remaining facilities were occupied under lease agreements, terms of which range from month to month to 18 years. We believe that our banking and other offices are in good condition and are suitable and adequate to our needs.
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
We are subject to various legal actions that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of business. While the ultimate outcome of pending proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, at this time management does not expect any such proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. However, one or more unfavorable outcomes in any legal action against us could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or their ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management's attention and may materially adversely affect our reputation, even if resolved in our favor.
Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Item 5. Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK". Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 9, 2018. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
At February 19, 2019, there were approximately 1,840 holders of record of our common stock as reported by our transfer agent.
We intend to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock, subject to approval by our board of directors. Although we expect to pay dividends according to our dividend policy, we may elect not to pay dividends. Any declarations of dividends, and the amount and timing thereof, will be at the discretion of our board of directors. In determining the amount of any future dividends, our board of directors will take into account our earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and any other relevant factors. The primary source for dividends paid to stockholders are dividends or capital distributions paid to the Company from the Bank. There are regulatory restrictions on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will pay any dividends to holders of our stock or the amount of any such dividends. See "Item 1. Business - Regulation and Supervision" above and see Note 16 - Capital and Regulatory Matters contained in Item 8 of this report.
Equity Compensation Plans
See "Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters"
Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock to the cumulative total stockholder return for the Nasdaq Composite Index and the SNL Index for U.S. Banks with net assets between $1.0 billion and $5.0 billion for the period beginning on May 9, 2018, the first day of trading of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK", through December 31, 2018. The following reflects index values as of close of trading, assumes $100.00 invested on May 9, 2018, in our common stock, the Nasdaq Composite Index and the SNL Index for U.S. Banks, and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The historical price of our common stock represented in this graph represents past performance and is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
May 9, 2018
June 30, 2018
September 30, 2018
December 31, 2018
Origin Bancorp, Inc.
Nasdaq Composite Index
SNL Index for U.S. Banks $1B - $5B
Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
On July 1, 2018, the Company acquired substantially all of the assets of Reeves, Coon & Funderburg. The consideration paid in this transaction included 66,824 shares of the Company's common stock issued at the closing of the acquisition with an aggregate value of approximately $2,706,372, based on the closing sale price of the Company's stock on the acquisition date. The Company relied on the exemption from registration available under Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended ("Securities Act"), as the basis for exemption from registration for this issuance. These shares were issued in a privately negotiated transaction and not pursuant to a public solicitation. A Form D was filed on July 12, 2018.
In May 2018, the Company sold 3,045,426 shares of the Company's common stock at a public offering price of $34.00 per share in its initial public offering, including 545,426 shares sold in connection with the exercise of the underwriters' option to purchase additional shares, and certain selling stockholders sold 1,136,176 shares in the offering. The offer and sale of all the shares in the initial public offering were registered under the Securities Act pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-224225), which was declared effective by the SEC on May 8, 2018.
There has been no material change in the planned use of proceeds from our initial public offering as described in the prospectus filed with the SEC on May 9, 2018, pursuant to Rule 424(b)(4) under the Securities Act.
The Company did not repurchase any of its common stock during the periods covered by this report.
Item 6. Selected Financial Data
The following tables set forth certain selected historical consolidated financial data as of and for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014, and is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements. You should read this information in conjunction with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" contained in Item 7 of this report and our consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Item 8 of this report.
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
At and for the Years Ended December 31,
Statement of income data:
Total interest income
Total interest expense
Net interest income
Provision for credit losses
Net interest income after provision for credit losses
Income before income taxes
Income tax expense
Common stock dividends
Balance sheet data (period end):
Goodwill and other intangible assets, net
Junior subordinated debentures
Total stockholders' equity(2)
SBLF preferred stock
Series D preferred stock
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
At and for the Years Ended December 31,
Statement of income data:
Earnings per share data:
Preferred stock dividends
Net income allocated to participating stockholders
Net income available to common stockholders
Common shares outstanding at end of period(3)
Weighted average common shares outstanding(3)
Weighted average diluted common shares outstanding(3)
Basic earnings per share(3)
Diluted earnings per share(3)
Return on average assets(4)
Return on average equity(4)
Net interest margin, fully tax equivalent(5)
Dividend payout ratio
Asset quality ratios:
Nonperforming assets to total assets
Nonperforming loans to loans held for investment
Allowance for loan losses to nonperforming loans
Allowance for loan losses to loans held for investment
Net charge-offs as a percentage of average loans held for investment(4)
Book value per common share
Equity to assets
Tier 1 capital to average assets(4)
Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets
Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets
Total capital to risk-weighted assets
Balances are shown net of the allowance for loan losses and exclude loans held for sale.
Includes shares owned by our Employee Retirement Plan ("Retirement Plan") for periods prior to December 31, 2018.
Presentation of share and per share amounts has been adjusted to reflect a 2-for-1 stock split that occurred on October 5, 2016.
All average balances are calculated using average daily balances.
Tax equivalent yields are calculated by applying a 21% estimated tax rate to tax-exempt interest earnings for the year ended December 31, 2018, and 35% for all periods prior to December 31, 2018.
We calculate the efficiency ratio by dividing noninterest expense by the sum of net interest income and noninterest income. The efficiency ratio is not calculated on a fully tax equivalent basis.
Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis presents our financial condition and results of operations on a consolidated basis. However, we conduct all of our material business operations through our wholly owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, and the discussion and analysis that follows primarily relates to activities conducted at the Bank level.
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Item 8 of this report. To the extent that this discussion describes prior performance, the descriptions relate only to the periods listed, which may not be indicative of our future financial outcomes. In addition to historical information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause results to differ materially from management's expectations. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in the sections titled "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors." We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements.
Critical Accounting Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles ("GAAP") and with general practices within the financial services industry. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under current circumstances. These assumptions form the basis for our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from independent, objective sources. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. Use of alternative assumptions may have resulted in significantly different estimates. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Please refer to Note 1 - Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8 of this report for a full discussion of our accounting policies, including estimates.
We have identified the following accounting estimates that, due to the difficult, subjective or complex judgments and assumptions inherent in those estimates and the potential sensitivity of the financial statements to those judgments and assumptions,
are critical to an understanding of our financial condition and results of operations. We believe that the judgments, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements are appropriate.
Allowance for Loan Losses. Our allowance for loan losses is established as losses are estimated to have occurred through a provision for loan losses charged to earnings. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance. The allowance for loan losses is evaluated on a regular basis by management and is based upon management's periodic review of the collectability of the loans in light of historical experience, the nature and volume of the loan portfolio, adverse situations that may affect the borrower's ability to repay, estimated value of any underlying collateral, and prevailing economic conditions. This evaluation is inherently subjective as it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available. Loans are charged against the allowance for loan losses when management believes the loss is confirmed.
Mortgage Servicing Rights. We recognize as assets the rights to service mortgage loans based on the estimated fair value of the Mortgage Servicing Right ("MSR") when loans are sold and the associated servicing rights are retained. We elected to account for the MSR at fair value.
The fair value of the MSR is determined using a valuation model administered by a third party that calculates the present value of estimated future net servicing income. The model incorporates assumptions that market participants use in estimating future net servicing income, including estimates of prepayment speeds, discount rate, default rates, cost to service (including delinquency and foreclosure costs), escrow account earnings, contractual servicing fee income and other ancillary income such as late fees. Management reviews all significant assumptions quarterly. Mortgage loan prepayment speeds, a key assumption in the model, is the annual rate at which borrowers are forecasted to repay their mortgage loan principal. The discount rate used to determine the present value of estimated future net servicing income, another key assumption in the model, is an estimate of the rate of return investors in the market would require for an asset with similar risk. Both assumptions can, and generally will, change as market conditions and interest rates change.
An increase in either the prepayment speed or discount rate assumption will result in a decrease in the fair value of the MSR, while a decrease in either assumption will result in an increase in the fair value of the MSR. In recent years, there have been significant market-driven fluctuations in loan prepayment speeds and discount rates. These fluctuations can be rapid and may continue to be significant. Therefore, estimating prepayment speed and/or discount rates within ranges that market participants would use in determining the fair value of the MSR requires significant management judgment.
We are a financial holding company headquartered in Ruston, Louisiana. Through our wholly owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, we provide a broad range of financial services to small and medium-sized businesses, municipalities, high net worth individuals and retail clients through 41 banking centers in Louisiana, Texas and Mississippi. As a financial holding company operating through one segment, we generate the majority of our revenue from interest earned on loans and investments, service charges and fees on deposit accounts.
We incur interest expense on deposits and other borrowed funds and noninterest expense, such as salaries and employee benefits and occupancy expenses. We analyze our ability to maximize income generated from interest earning assets and expense of our liabilities through our net interest margin. Net interest margin is a ratio calculated as net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets. Net interest income is the difference between interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans, securities and interest-bearing cash, and interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings.
Changes in market interest rates and the interest rates we earn on interest-earning assets or pay on interest-bearing liabilities, as well as in the volume and types of interest-earning assets, interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing liabilities and stockholders' equity, are usually the largest drivers of periodic changes in net interest spread, net interest margin and net interest income. Fluctuations in market interest rates are driven by many factors, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, deflation, macroeconomic developments, changes in unemployment, the money supply, political and international conditions and conditions in domestic and foreign financial markets. Periodic changes in the volume and types of loans in our loan portfolio are affected by, among other factors, economic and competitive conditions, as well as developments affecting the real estate, technology, financial services, insurance, transportation and manufacturing sectors within our target markets.
Comparison of Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
Net Interest Income
Year ended December 31, 2018, compared to year ended December 31, 2017
Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2018, was $153.5 million, an increase of $23.1 million over the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase was driven by higher yields and higher average outstanding balances in our loan portfolio. The yield earned on our loans held for investment was 4.96% for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 4.38% for the year ended December 31, 2017. Average loans held for investment totaled $3.40 billion for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to $3.13 billion for the year ended December 31, 2017. Increases in the yield earned on loans held for investment provided approximately $19.5 million of the increase in interest income, while average loans held for investment provided approximately $11.6 million of the increase. Commercial and industrial and commercial real estate loans contributed a total of $20.0 million of the increase. These increases were partially offset by an increase in the cost of funding primarily driven by increases in market interest rates.
The average cost of our interest-bearing liabilities increased during the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 2017, primarily due to higher average savings and interest-bearing transaction account rates. The average rate paid on interest-bearing deposits was 1.10% for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of 36 basis points from 0.74% for the year ended December 31, 2017.
Year ended December 31, 2017, compared to year ended December 31, 2016
Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2017, was $130.3 million, a $9.6 million, or 8.0%, increase from $120.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase was primarily the result of increased yields earned, and to a lesser extent, increases in the average balances in our loan portfolio. The average yield on our loan portfolio for the year ended December 31, 2017, was 4.37%, a 27 basis point increase from 4.10% for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in yield earned on our loan portfolio was attributed to a mix of fewer nonperforming loans which resulted in higher interest earned and increases in the interest rate environment during 2017, but was partially offset by increased rates for our interest-bearing liabilities. During 2016, credit deterioration in our energy lending portfolio resulted in a downward impact of 15 basis points to the total yield on our loan portfolio. During 2017, our energy lending portfolio resulted in a downward impact of three basis points to the total yield on our loan portfolio. In 2017, we executed on our strategy to manage the reduction in our energy loan portfolio through the sale of certain remaining energy loans. We had no energy loans held for sale at December 31, 2017, and we do not expect significant losses on energy loan sales in the future.
The average cost of our interest-bearing liabilities for the year ended December 31, 2017, was 0.82%, an increase of 14 basis points from 0.68% for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in the cost of interest-bearing liabilities was primarily attributed to rises in the interest rate environment, which increase our costs to retain and attract deposits. For the year ended December 31, 2017, our net interest margin increased by 14 basis points to 3.42% from 3.28% for the year ended December 31, 2016.
The following table presents average balance sheet information, interest income, interest expense and the corresponding average yields earned and rates paid for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016.
Years Ended December 31,
(Dollars in thousands)
Commercial real estate
Residential real estate
Commercial and industrial
Mortgage warehouse lines of credit
Loans held for investment
Loans held for sale
Non-marketable equity securities held in other financial institutions
Interest-bearing deposits in banks
Federal funds sold
Total interest-earning assets
Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity
Savings and interest-bearing transaction accounts
Total interest-bearing deposits
FHLB advances & other borrowings
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
Total interest-bearing liabilities
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity
Net interest spread (4)
Net interest income and margin
Net interest income and margin - (tax equivalent)(5)
Nonaccrual loans are included in their respective loan category for the purpose of calculating the yield earned. All average balances are daily average balances.
Yields earned and rates paid are calculated at the portfolio level using the actual number of days in the year, except for our securities, consumer real estate and held for sale loan portfolios, which are calculated using 360 days in a year. Yields earned are calculated net of deferred fees and costs.
Includes Government National Mortgage Association ("GNMA") repurchase average balances of $30.1 million, $26.1 million and $15.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. The GNMA repurchase asset and liability are recorded as equal offsetting amounts in the consolidated balance sheets, with the asset included in loans held for sale and the liability included in FHLB advances and other borrowings. For more information on the GNMA repurchase option, see Note 8 - Mortgage Banking in the notes to our consolidated financial statements.
Net interest spread is the average yield on interest-earning assets minus the average rate on interest-bearing liabilities.
In order to present pre-tax income and resulting yields on tax-exempt investments comparable to those on taxable investments, a tax-equivalent adjustment has been computed. This adjustment also includes income tax credits received on Qualified School Construction Bonds. Income from tax-exempt investments and tax credits were computed using a Federal income tax rate of 21% for the year ended December 31, 2018, and 35% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. The tax-equivalent net interest margin would have been 3.49% and 3.35% for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively, if we had been subject to the 21% Federal income tax rate enacted for 2018, in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.
The following tables present the dollar amount of changes in interest income and interest expense for major components of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. It distinguishes between the changes related to outstanding balances and those due to changes in interest rates. The change in interest attributable to rate changes has been determined by applying the change in rate between periods to average balances outstanding in the earlier period. The change in interest due to volume has been determined by applying the rate from the earlier period to the change in average balances outstanding between periods. For purposes of this table, changes attributable to both rate and volume that cannot be segregated have been allocated to rate.
(Dollars in thousands)
Year Ended December 31, 2018 vs. Year Ended December 31, 2017
Increase (Decrease) due to Change in
Commercial real estate
Residential real estate
Commercial and industrial
Mortgage warehouse lines of credit
Loans held for sale
Non-marketable equity securities held in other financial institutions
Interest-bearing deposits in banks
Federal funds sold
Total interest-earning assets
Savings and interest-bearing transaction accounts
FHLB advances & other borrowings
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
Junior subordinated debentures
Total interest-bearing liabilities
Net interest income
(Dollars in thousands)
Year Ended December 31, 2017 vs. Year Ended December 31, 2016
Increase (Decrease) due to Change in
Commercial real estate
Residential real estate
Commercial and industrial
Mortgage warehouse lines of credit
Loans held for sale
Non-marketable equity securities held in other financial institutions
Interest-bearing deposits in banks
Total interest-earning assets
Savings and interest-bearing transaction accounts
FHLB advances & other borrowings
Securities sold under agreements to repurchase
Junior subordinated debentures
Total interest-bearing liabilities
Net interest income
Provision for Credit Losses
The provision for credit losses, which includes both the provision for loan losses and provision for off-balance sheet commitments, is based on management's assessment of the adequacy of both our allowance for loan losses and our reserve for off-balance sheet lending commitments. Factors impacting the provision include inherent risk characteristics in our loan portfolio, the level of nonperforming loans and net charge-offs, both current and historic, local economic and credit conditions, the direction of the change in collateral values, and the funding probability on unfunded lending commitments. The provision for credit losses is charged against earnings in order to maintain our allowance for loan losses, which reflects management's best estimate of probable losses inherent in our loan portfolio at the balance sheet date, and our reserve for off-balance sheet lending commitments, which reflects management's best estimate of probable losses inherent in our legally binding lending-related commitments.
Year ended December 31, 2018, compared to year ended December 31, 2017
We recorded provision expense of $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, a $7.3 million decrease from provision expense of $8.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease in provision expense was due to improvement in the overall credit quality of our loan portfolio, including reductions in specific reserves on certain collateral-dependent impaired loans during 2018. Our allowance for loan losses was 0.90% of total loans held for investment at December 31, 2018, compared to 1.14% at December 31, 2017. Specific reserves on impaired loans totaled $366,000 at December 31, 2018, compared to $4.8 million at December 31, 2017. General reserves totaled $33.8 million, or 0.89% of total loans held for investment at December 31, 2018, compared to $32.3 million, or 1.00% at December 31, 2017.
Year ended December 31, 2017, compared to year ended December 31, 2016
The provision for credit losses for the year ended December 31, 2017, was $8.3 million, a decrease of $21.7 million, or 72.3%, from $30.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in provision expense was driven by significant provision expense recorded in 2016 on our energy lending portfolio. Of the 2016 provision expense, $31.7 million was attributable to deterioration in our energy loan portfolio due to the decline in the price of oil and resulting downturn in the energy sector, partially offset by a net recovery in the remainder of our loan portfolio. Net charge-offs for the twelve months ended December 31, 2017, were $21.7 million compared to $21.9 million for same period in 2016, while net charge-offs for the energy portfolio were $14.6 million and $22.7 million for the same periods, respectively. Our energy portfolio totaled $54.3 million at December 31, 2017, compared to $151.0 million at December 31, 2016.
Our primary sources of recurring noninterest income are service charges on deposit accounts, mortgage banking revenue, insurance commission and fee income, and other fee income.
The table below presents the various components of and changes in our noninterest income for the periods indicated.
(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
2018 vs. 2017
2017 vs. 2016
Service charges and fees
Mortgage banking revenue
Insurance commission and fee income
(Loss) gains on sales of securities, net
Losses on non-mortgage loans held for sale, net
(Loss) gain on sales and disposals of other assets, net
Other fee income
Total noninterest income
Year ended December 31, 2018, compared to year ended December 31, 2017
Noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2018, increased by $12.1 million, or 41.3%, to $41.2 million, compared to $29.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2017.
The increase in noninterest income during the year ended December 31, 2018, was largely driven by $12.7 million in losses incurred on non-mortgage loans held for sale in 2017, with no comparable expense incurred during 2018. Other contributing factors were increases in other income and insurance commission and fee income of $3.4 million and $2.5 million, respectively. The most significant driver of the increase in other noninterest income for the year ended December 31, 2018, compared to 2017, was a positive valuation adjustment of $2.0 million on a common stock investment due to a recent accounting standard change. For more information on this accounting standard update, please refer to Note 1 - Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to the consolidated financial statements. The increase in insurance commission and fee income was primarily driven by the RCF acquisition in July 2018, which significantly expanded the Company's insurance presence in the North Louisiana market.
Partially offsetting the net increase in noninterest income was a $6.2 million decrease in mortgage banking revenue. This decrease was primarily due to a 67.2% decline in the volume of mortgage loans sold, resulting in a $5.0 million decrease in gains on the sale of mortgage loans. The reduction in volume was primarily driven by the closing of a loan production office outside of our core geographic footprint that accounted for a significant portion of mortgage production, as we shifted our focus to retail originations within our core geographic banking footprint. Also contributing to the decrease in volume on mortgage loans sold was a broader downturn in the mortgage industry. As part of this strategy, we also reduced the amount of third party originations in our mortgage pipeline during 2018 compared to 2017.
Year ended December 31, 2017, compared to year ended December 31, 2016
Noninterest income was $29.2 million, representing a decrease of $12.7 million, or 30.3%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2016.
The decrease in noninterest income during the year ended December 31, 2017, was primarily driven by $12.7 million in losses incurred on non-mortgage loans held for sale in 2017, with no comparable expense incurred during 2016. In addition, other income decreased by $2.5 million, or 38.6%, to $4.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to $6.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease was primarily a result of a decrease in limited partnership income of $2.3 million. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recognized a gain of $1.9 million as a result of the sale of certain assets held in one of our limited partnership investments. Excluding this gain, we recorded income from our limited partnerships of $893,000 for the year ended December 31, 2016, compared to income of $444,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017. The investment partnerships are Small Business Investment Companies, and our investments in these partnerships provide us credit toward our requirements under the Community Reinvestment Act.
Partially offsetting the net decrease in noninterest income during the year ended December 31, 2017, compared to 2016, was a $1.6 million increase in gains on sale and disposal of other assets. This was driven by the sale of a bank-owned tract of vacant land in 2017 for a gain of $1.5 million, with no corresponding sale during 2016.
The following table presents the significant components of noninterest expense for the periods indicated:
(Dollars in thousands)
Years Ended December 31,
2018 vs. 2017
2017 vs. 2016
Salaries and employee benefits
Occupancy and equipment, net
Advertising and marketing
Loan related expenses
Office and operations