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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
    ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022
OR
    TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from ____________ to __________
Commission file number 001-38487
Origin Bancorp, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Louisiana72-1192928
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
500 South Service Road East
Ruston, Louisiana 71270
(318) 255-2222
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Exchange on which Registered
Common Stock, par value $5.00 per shareOBNKNasdaq Stock Market LLC
Securities Registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes ☐ No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one)
Large accelerated filer Accelerated filerNon-accelerated filerSmaller reporting companyEmerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes No ☐
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the Registrant was $860.9 million as of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the Registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter. Solely for the purpose of this computation, it has been assumed that executive officers and directors of the Registrant are "affiliates".
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer's classes of common stock as of the latest practicable date: 30,768,621 shares of Common Stock, par value $5.00 per share, were issued and outstanding as of February 15, 2023.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2023 Annual Meeting of Stockholders of Origin Bancorp, Inc. to be held on May 10, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K to the extent stated herein. Such Definitive Proxy Statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after the end of the registrant's fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.



ORIGIN BANCORP, INC.
FORM 10-K
DECEMBER 31, 2022
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Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Statements preceded by, followed by or that otherwise include the words "anticipates," "believes," "estimates," "expects," "foresees," "intends," "plans," "projects," and similar expressions or future or conditional verbs such as "could," "may," "might," "should," "will," and "would," or variations or negatives of such terms are generally forward-looking in nature and not historical facts, although not all forward-looking statements include the foregoing words. Forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management's beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in our forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.
There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:
Economic uncertainty or a deterioration in economic conditions or slowdowns in economic growth in the United States generally, and particularly in the market areas in which we operate and in which our loans are concentrated, including declines in home sale volumes and financial stress on borrowers (consumers and businesses) as a result of higher interest rates or an uncertain economic environment;
fluctuating and/or volatile interest rates, capital markets and the impact of inflation on our business and financial results, as well as the impact on our customers (including the velocity of loan repayment);
changes in the interest rate environment may reduce interest margins;
prepayment speeds, loan origination and sale volumes, charge-offs and loan loss provisions may vary substantially from period to period;
global business and economic conditions and in the financial services industry, nationally and within our local market areas, including the impact of supply-chain disruptions and labor pressures;
an increase in unemployment levels, slowdowns in economic growth and threats of recession;
customer income, creditworthiness and confidence, spending and savings that may affect customer bankruptcies, defaults, charge-offs and deposit activity;
the credit risk associated with the substantial amount of commercial real estate, construction and land development, and commercial loans in our loan portfolio;
factors that can impact the performance of our loan portfolio, including real estate values and liquidity in our primary market areas, the financial health of our commercial borrowers and the success of construction projects that we finance, including any loans acquired in merger/acquisition transactions;
natural disasters and adverse weather events (including hurricanes), acts of terrorism, an outbreak of hostilities, (including the impacts related to or resulting from Russia's military action in Ukraine, including the imposition of additional sanctions and export controls, as well as the broader impacts to financial markets and the global macroeconomic and geopolitical environments), regional or national protests and civil unrest (including any resulting branch closures or property damage), widespread illness or public health outbreaks or other international or domestic calamities, and other matters beyond our control;
system failures, cybersecurity threats and/or security breaches and the cost of defending against them;
the duration and impact of the coronavirus ("COVID-19") pandemic and efforts to contain its transmission, as well as the impact of the actions taken by governmental authorities to address the impact of COVID-19 on the United States economy, including, without limitation, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act") and any related future economic stimulus legislation;
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the discontinuation of LIBOR (and its replacement with alternatives) could result in financial, operational, legal, reputational or compliance risks to us;
deterioration of our asset quality;
risks associated with widespread inflation or deflation;
the risks of mergers, acquisitions and divestitures, including our ability to continue to identify acquisition or merger targets and successfully acquire and integrate desirable financial institutions;
changes in the value of collateral securing our loans;
our ability to anticipate interest rate changes and manage interest rate risk;
the effectiveness of our risk management framework and quantitative models;
our inability to receive dividends from our bank subsidiary and to service debt, pay dividends to our common stockholders, repurchase our shares of common stock and satisfy obligations as they become due;
changes in our operation or expansion strategy or our ability to prudently manage our growth and execute our strategy;
changes in management personnel;
our ability to maintain important deposit customer relationships, our reputation or otherwise avoid liquidity risks;
increasing costs as we grow deposits;
operational risks associated with our business;
increased competition in the financial services industry, particularly from regional and national institutions, as well as fintech companies, may accelerate due to the current economic environment;
our level of nonperforming assets and the costs associated with resolving any problem loans, including litigation and other costs;
potential claims, damages, penalties, fines and reputational damage resulting from pending or future litigation, regulatory proceedings or enforcement actions;
risks related to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") strategies and initiatives, the scope and pace of which could alter our reputation and shareholder, associate, customer and third-party affiliations;
our ability to comply with applicable capital and liquidity requirements, including our ability to generate liquidity internally or raise capital on favorable terms, including continued access to the debt and equity capital markets;
changes in the utility of our non-GAAP measurements and their underlying assumptions or estimates;
changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations or policies relating to financial institutions, as well as tax, trade, monetary and fiscal matters, and the possibility that the U.S. could default on its debt obligations;
periodic changes to the extensive body of accounting rules and best practices, may change the treatment and recognition of critical financial line items and affect our profitability;
further government intervention in the U.S. financial system;
compliance with governmental and regulatory requirements, including the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and others relating to banking, consumer protection, securities and tax matters; and
our ability to manage the risks involved in the foregoing.


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The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this report. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. In addition, as a result of these and other factors, our past financial performance should not be relied upon as an indication of future performance. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise. New risks and uncertainties emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict those events or how they may affect us. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.
PART I
Item 1.    Business
Our Company
Unless the context otherwise requires, references in this Annual Report on Form 10-K to "we," "us," "our," "our company," "the Company" or "Origin" refer to Origin Bancorp, Inc., a Louisiana corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references to "Origin Bank" or "the Bank" refer to Origin Bank, our wholly-owned bank subsidiary.
Origin Bancorp, Inc. is a financial holding company headquartered in Ruston, Louisiana. Our wholly owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, was founded in 1912 in Choudrant, Louisiana. Deeply rooted in our history is a culture committed to providing personalized, relationship banking to businesses, municipalities, and personal clients to enrich the lives of the people in the communities we serve. We provide a broad range of financial services and currently operate 59 banking centers located in Dallas/Fort Worth, East Texas, Houston, North Louisiana and Mississippi. At December 31, 2022, we had total assets of $9.69 billion, total loans held for investment ("LHFI") of $7.09 billion, total deposits of $7.78 billion and total stockholders' equity of $949.9 million.
We completed an initial public offering of our common stock in May 2018. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK."
We are committed to building unique client experiences through a strong culture, experienced leadership team and a focus on delivering unmatched customer service throughout Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. Our success has been based on (1) a talented team of relationship bankers, executives and directors; (2) a diverse footprint with stable and growth-oriented markets; (3) differentiated and customized delivery and service; (4) our core deposit franchise and (5) an ability to significantly leverage our infrastructure and technology.
Successful execution of our strategic plan has produced significant growth in our franchise. Since 2005, we have enhanced our growth by integrating four bank acquisitions, entering de novo into several expansion markets, expanding our product offerings in mortgage lending and servicing as well as in insurance and private banking. We have supported our markets by hiring a number of experienced in-market bankers and banking teams. To support our growth, we have raised over $589.6 million of new Tier 1 capital since 2006, including proceeds from our initial public offering completed in May 2018, we issued subordinated notes that are treated as Tier 2 capital for regulatory purposes in 2020, and completed an all stock merger valued at $307.8 million in 2022. Through these efforts, we have successfully increased our market share in our key geographic markets.
Merger
We believe in relationship-based, community banking where a putting people first philosophy thrives. Identifying and merging with BT Holdings, Inc. ("BTH"), a Texas corporation and the registered bank holding company of BTH Bank, allowed us to merge two companies that have been passionately committed to community banking for more than 100 years and are each deeply rooted in their communities. Our merger with BTH was our only material acquisition during the previous five years.


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On August 1, 2022, we completed our merger with BTH, acquiring 100% of the voting equity interests. We issued 6,794,910 shares of our common stock, and all outstanding BTH common stock options were converted into options to purchase an aggregate of 611,676 shares of Origin common stock. Based on the closing price of our common stock on July 29, 2022, of $43.07 per share, the aggregate consideration paid to holders of BTH common stock in connection with the merger was approximately $307.8 million. Goodwill of $94.5 million was recorded as a result of the transaction.
Including the effects of known purchase accounting adjustments, as of the merger date, BTH had approximately $1.85 billion in assets, $1.23 billion in net loans and $1.57 billion in deposits. BTH formerly operated its banking business from 13 locations in East Texas, Dallas and Fort Worth, each of which now operates as a banking location of Origin Bank.
Our Competitive Strengths and Banking Strategy
Organic Growth Capabilities with Strategic Acquisitions
We have historically been able to demonstrate our ability to grow our loans and deposits organically. Our team of seasoned bankers has been an important driver of our organic growth by further developing banking relationships with current and potential clients. Our relationship bankers are motivated to increase the size of their loan and deposit portfolios and generate fee income while maintaining strong credit quality. To promote our organic growth, we strategically locate banking centers within our markets and employ highly experienced relationship bankers who proactively develop valuable relationships within the communities that we serve. Through these relationships, our bankers are able to meet our customers’ needs and capitalize on loan demand across a wide range of industries. This allows us to not only diversify our loan portfolio, but also focus on loans with quality credit characteristics.
We focus on generating and retaining core deposits and, in particular, noninterest-bearing deposits, as our primary funding source to support loan growth. We believe motivating our relationship bankers to generate strong core, noninterest-bearing deposit growth enhances our ability to build and strengthen client relationships and provide stable funding for future growth.
We also intend to continue pursuing selective acquisition opportunities that we expect will enhance our business model within our attractive geographic footprint and other complementary markets.
A Unique from Within Client Experience
Our mission is to passionately pursue ways to make banking and insurance more rewarding for our employees, customers, communities, and stockholders. We have a deep commitment to providing an unmatched client experience that exceeds our customers’ expectations. We believe by aligning our processes, philosophy, technology, and culture; we create a seamless experience that goes beyond the transactional and becomes transformational. Trust, encouraging strong work ethic, innovation, flexibility, forward-thinking, genuine respect for others, commitment to our community, and never compromising our integrity are our values, and are the foundation of our company.
Concentration on Sound Asset Quality
We believe that asset quality is a key to long-term financial success. We seek to maintain sound asset quality by moderating credit risk, adhering to prudent lending practices and promoting a relationship-based approach to commercial and consumer banking. Our executive management team has extensive knowledge of the bank regulatory landscape, significant experience navigating interest rate and credit cycles and a long history of collaboration, which we believe may help us avoid or mitigate unforeseen losses.
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Expanding Revenue Sources
We offer commercial and retail customers a wide range of products and services that provide us with a diversified revenue stream and help us to solidify customer relationships. We provide products and services that compete with large, national banks but with the personalized attention and responsiveness of a relationship-focused community bank. Our offerings include traditional retail deposits, treasury management, commercial deposits, commercial and consumer loans, mortgage origination and servicing, insurance, mobile banking and online banking. Our clients value our ability to provide the sophisticated products and services of larger banks, but with a local and agile decision-making process, a focus on building personal relationships, and a commitment to investing in the local economy and community. This allows us to build Origin Bank by focusing on low-cost core deposit relationships, high credit quality loans, and fee income generated by value-added services. It also allows us to develop strong relationships across industries, creating a diverse commercial loan portfolio.
We believe we have an attractive mix of loans and deposits. At December 31, 2022, our loans held for investment ("LHFI") portfolio was comprised of 32.9% commercial and industrial loans including mortgage warehouse loans, and 45.8% commercial real estate loans, including construction/land/land development loans. 34.1% of our total commercial real estate and construction/land/land development is owner occupied and 65.9% in non-owner occupied. At December 31, 2022, approximately 32.0% of our deposits were noninterest-bearing demand deposits, and our cost of total deposits was 0.47% for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Our Markets
We currently operate in the markets of Dallas/Fort Worth, Houston, East Texas, North Louisiana and Mississippi, all of which offer attractive combinations of diversity, growth and stability.
The Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston markets represent two of the largest and fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the country. These markets provide attractive economic environments and offer significant deposit and lending opportunities as they are home to many large and mid-size corporations across a wide range of industries that include healthcare, manufacturing, higher education, agriculture, energy, transportation and technology.
Our merger with BTH allowed us to enter the East Texas market and expand our footprint across the I-20 corridor. The merger also bolstered our presence in the Dallas/ Fort Worth market. We believe the strong reputation and commitment of both banks will provide growth in both markets and allow us to strengthen relationships in the communities we serve.
The North Louisiana markets offer a stable economic climate with lower costs associated with deposit gathering and our operational platform. Our footprint in Mississippi comprises areas of significant commercial investment and additional growth opportunities. We believe all of our markets throughout Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi provide favorable business climates and continued opportunity for growth.
Our Banking Services
We are focused on delivering a broad range of relationship-driven financial services tailored to meet the needs of small and medium-sized businesses, municipalities, and retail clients. We principally operate in one business segment, community banking. We are primarily engaged in attracting deposits from individuals and businesses and using these deposits and borrowed funds to originate commercial, residential mortgage, construction and consumer loans.
We have grown our assets, deposits, and business primarily organically by building relationships through our lending products, expanding our deposit products and delivery capabilities, opening new branches, and hiring experienced bankers with existing customer relationships in our market areas.
A general discussion of the range of financial services we offer follows.
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Lending Activities
We originate loans primarily secured by single and multi-family real estate, residential construction and commercial buildings. In addition, we make loans to small and mid-sized businesses, as well as to consumers for a variety of purposes. Our loan portfolio at the dates indicated was comprised as follows:
(Dollars in thousands)
December 31,
Real estate: 20222021
Owner occupied commercial real estate$843,006 $523,655 
Non-owner occupied commercial real estate1,461,672 1,169,857 
Total commercial real estate
2,304,678 1,693,512 
Owner occupied construction/land/land development265,838 160,131 
Non-owner occupied construction/land/land development679,787 369,952 
Total construction/land/land development
945,625 530,083 
Residential real estate
1,477,538 909,739 
Total real estate
4,727,841 3,133,334 
Commercial and industrial
2,051,161 1,454,235 
Mortgage warehouse lines of credit
284,867 627,078 
Consumer loans
26,153 16,684 
Total LHFI
$7,090,022 $5,231,331 
Commercial Real Estate Loans and Construction/Land/Land Development Loans. We primarily originate commercial real estate loans and construction/land/land development loans that are generally secured by real estate located in our market areas. Our commercial mortgage loans are generally collateralized by first liens on real estate and amortized over 20 to 30 years, with balloon payments typically due at the end of five years. These loans are generally underwritten by addressing cash flow (debt service coverage), primary, secondary, and tertiary sources of repayment, the financial strength of any guarantor, the strength of the tenant (if any), the borrower's liquidity and leverage, management experience, ownership structure, economic conditions, industry-specific trends and collateral. Commercial real estate loans have contributed interest income of $88.2 million and $61.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively, while construction/land/land development loans have contributed interest income of $36.4 million and $21.9 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Consumer Loans and Residential Real Estate Loans. Our consumer loan portfolio is primarily composed of secured and unsecured loans that we originate. The largest component of our consumer loan portfolio is for residential real estate purposes. We originate one-to-four family, owner-occupied residential mortgage loans generally secured by property located in our primary market areas. The majority of our residential mortgage loans consist of loans secured by owner-occupied, single-family residences. These loans are underwritten by giving consideration to the borrower's ability to pay, stability of employment or source of income, debt-to-income ratio, credit history and loan-to-value ratio. Consumer loans also include closed-end second mortgages, home equity lines of credit and our mortgage loans held for sale. Consumer and residential real estate loans have contributed interest income of $51.1 million and $38.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Commercial and Industrial Loans. Commercial and industrial loans are made for a variety of business purposes, including working capital, inventory, equipment and capital expansion. The terms for commercial loans are generally one to seven years. Commercial loans are generally underwritten by addressing cash flow (debt service coverage), primary and secondary sources of repayment, the financial strength of any guarantor, the borrower's liquidity and leverage, management experience, ownership structure, economic conditions, industry specific trends and collateral. Commercial and industrial loans have contributed interest income of $90.5 million and $67.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
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Mortgage Warehouse Loans. Mortgage warehouse loans are extended to mortgage companies and secured by loan participations in mortgages that are typically sold within 15 to 25 days. The loans are underwritten by the approved mortgage company using agency or investor guidelines. The loans are then committed to a secondary market investor and are primarily made up of agency-eligible conventional loans (Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac), government loans (Ginnie Mae, FHA loans, VA loans, USDA Rural Housing Development loans) and qualified jumbo loans. Mortgage warehouse loans have contributed interest income of $18.7 million and $27.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Credit Risks. The principal economic risk associated with each category of loans we make is the creditworthiness of the borrower and the ability of the borrower to repay the relevant loan. Borrower creditworthiness is affected by general economic conditions, including interest rates, inflation, and in the case of commercial borrowers, demand for the borrower's products and services, and other factors affecting the borrower's customers, suppliers and employees.
Mortgage warehouse loan risk is primarily centered in the borrower’s adherence to agency or investor underwriting guidelines, while the risk associated with the underlying consumer mortgage loan repayment, as similar to other consumer loans, depends on the borrower's financial stability and are more likely than commercial loans to be adversely affected by divorce, job loss, illness and other personal hardships.
Risks associated with real estate loans also include fluctuations in the value of real estate, new job creation trends, tenant vacancy rates, economic downturns that create the need for temporary payment forbearances and, in the case of commercial borrowers, the quality of the borrower's management. Consumer loan repayments depend on the borrower's financial stability and are more likely than commercial loans to be adversely affected by divorce, job loss, illness and other personal hardships.
Lending Philosophy. Our lending philosophy is driven by our commitment to centralized underwriting for all loans, local market knowledge, long-term customer relationships and a conservative credit culture. To implement this philosophy, we have established various levels of authority and review, including our Credit Risk Management Group. In each loan review, we emphasize cash flow and secondary and tertiary repayment sources, such as guarantors and collateral. We generally avoid lending to highly cyclical industries and typically avoid making certain types of loans that we consider to be higher risk.
Lending Policies. We have established common documentation requirements and policies for each type of loan. We have also established a corporate loan committee with authority to approve loans up to the legal lending limit of Origin Bank. During 2022, credit relationships of $8.0 million or greater were generally presented to the corporate loan committee for approval or ratification of approval prior to committing to the loan. The corporate loan committee meets weekly and on an ad hoc basis as needed.
Origin Bank's board of directors reviews our lending policies and procedures at least annually. In addition, there are legal restrictions on the maximum amount of loans available for each lending relationship. Origin Bank is subject to certain legal lending limits under the Louisiana Banking Law and Federal Reserve Regulation O. At December 31, 2022, we had established a general in-house lending limit ranging between $30.0 million and $35.0 million to any one borrower, excluding mortgage warehouse lines of credit, based upon our internal risk rating of the relationship. Due to multiple sources of repayment, mortgage warehouse lines of credit have a general in-house lending limit ranging between $30.0 million and $75.0 million to any one borrower.
Deposits and Other Sources of Funds
An important aspect of our business franchise is the ability to gather deposits. At December 31, 2022, we held $7.78 billion of total deposits and have grown deposits at a compound annual growth rate of 18.8% since December 31, 2003. At December 31, 2022, 95.8% of our total deposits were core deposits (defined as total deposits excluding time deposits greater than $250,000 and brokered deposits). We offer a wide range of deposit services, including checking, savings, money market accounts and time deposits. We obtain most of our deposits from individuals, small businesses and municipalities in our market areas. At December 31, 2022, 54.2% of our deposits were business deposits, 35.6% were consumer deposits and 10.2% were public fund deposits. One area of focus has been to create a deposit-focused sales force of business development bankers who have extensive contacts and connections with targeted clients and centers of influence throughout our communities. We also have access to secondary sources of funding, including advances from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, borrowings at the Federal Reserve Discount Window and other borrowings.
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Mortgage Banking
We are also engaged in the residential mortgage banking business, which primarily generates income from the sale of mortgage loans as well as the servicing of residential mortgage loans for others. We originate residential mortgage loans in our markets as a service to our existing customers and as a way to develop relationships with new customers in order to support our core banking strategy. Revenue from our mortgage banking activities was $6.7 million, $12.9 million and $29.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Insurance
We offer a wide variety of commercial and personal property and casualty insurance products through our wholly-owned insurance subsidiary, Davison Insurance Agency, LLC, which conducts business under the trade names Lincoln Agency, LLC, Lincoln Agency Transportation Insurance, Pulley-White Insurance Agency, Reeves, Coon & Funderburg, Simoneaux & Wallace Agency and Thomas & Farr Agency. With over 30 years of growth in the insurance industry and approximately 120 experienced professionals, our agency has primary market locations across Louisiana, but also serves customers in Texas, Mississippi, Arkansas and other states across the United States. In December 2021, we acquired the remaining 62% interest in the Lincoln Agency, bringing our total ownership to 100% ownership. In addition, in December 2021, we acquired Pulley-White located in Bossier City, Louisiana, thereby solidifying our presence as one of the larger independent insurance agencies in North Louisiana. Insurance commission and fee income was $22.9 million, $13.1 million and $12.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively.
Other Banking Services
Given customer demand for increased convenience and account access, we offer a wide range of products and services, including 24-hour internet banking and voice response information, mobile applications, cash management, overdraft protection, direct deposit, safe deposit boxes, U.S. savings bonds, automatic account transfers, peer-to-peer electronic pay solutions and personal financial management solutions.
Information Technology Systems
We continue to make significant investments in our information technology systems for our banking operations and treasury services to enhance our capabilities to offer new products and overall customer experience, to provide scale for future growth and acquisitions, and to increase controls and efficiencies in our back-office operations. Our core data processing platform is from a nationally-recognized bank processing vendor and we leverage the capabilities of a third-party service provider in developing our network design and architecture. We also actively manage our business continuity plan. The majority of our other systems, including electronic funds transfer and transaction processing, are operated in-house. Online banking services and other public-facing web services are performed using third-party service providers. We strive to follow all recommendations outlined by the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council and we perform regular tests of the adequacy of our contingency plans for key functions and systems.
Competition
The banking business is highly competitive, and our profitability will depend in large part on our ability to compete with other banks and nonbank financial service companies located in our markets for lending opportunities, deposit funds, financial products, bankers and acquisition targets.
We are subject to vigorous competition in all aspects of our business from banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, finance companies, credit unions, technology companies, and other financial service providers, such as money market funds, fintech companies, brokerage firms, consumer finance companies, asset-based nonbank lenders, insurance companies and certain other non-financial entities, including retail stores which may maintain their own credit programs and certain governmental organizations which may offer more favorable financing than we can.
Many other commercial banks, savings institutions and credit unions have offices in our primary market areas. These institutions include many of the largest banks operating in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi, including various national banks. Our competitors often have greater resources, have broader geographic markets, have higher lending limits, offer various services that we may not currently offer and make broader use of media advertising, support services and electronic technology than we do. To offset these competitive disadvantages, we depend on our reputation as having greater personal service, consistency, flexibility and the ability to make credit and other business decisions quickly.
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Human Capital Management
At December 31, 2022, we had 1,011 full-time equivalent employees, who benefit from a variety of initiatives designed to retain, grow, and develop them in becoming the best versions of themselves. At Origin, our culture has always been the foundation of our success. We work to define our culture in everything we do. It is in our attitudes, our diversity, our core values; it is in our interactions with our customers and communities. Culture is the soul of who we are as a company, and it starts with our employees.
Safe Work Environment
Throughout our history, we have been committed to employee and customer health and safety. This focus was magnified with the impact of COVID-19 and employee and customer health and safety continues to be one of our top priorities. While COVID-19 variants have evolved and changed our support of our employees and customer health has remained unwavering. During the pandemic, we expanded our work from home (“WFH”) capabilities in order to allow our employees to better serve our customers while putting safety first, and this option has allowed smooth operations while variants of the virus ebb and flow.
Compensation and Benefits
We provide competitive compensation and benefits in order to attract and retain top talent. In addition to base pay and stock awards, we have several incentive programs that are designed to link performance to pay and drive results towards the achievement of overall corporate goals. We also provide a myriad of benefits through programs such as DreamManager®, Health and Wellness coaching, Leadership Academies, Financial Wellness Initiatives, and Project Enrich, as detailed below.

Employee Engagement

Our Dream Manager® program assists our employees in meeting their own personal and professional goals in addition to helping them improve physically, emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually. Over 250 employees have participated in this program since 2019. We launched a nationally-recognized financial wellness program (“SmartDollar”) during 2021 that is designed to assist our employees in becoming debt-free and saving money for emergencies and retirement, empowering them to become better financially prepared for their future, which during 2022, had an over 40% participation rate. Due to our adoption rate, we won a national award in 2021 from the Dave Ramsey Foundation called the “Vision” award. Also in 2021, we hired a certified Holistic Health Coach to spearhead our Health & Wellness initiatives. In addition to providing health and wellness information on a regular basis to all employees, we currently have approximately 10% of our employees working directly with our Health Coach on a personalized basis to meet their desire to be healthier. Additionally, in one specific initiative designed to help the communities we serve, our Project Enrich program provides employees with up to twenty hours of paid time off to volunteer in their communities. In 2022, the employees of Origin volunteered 2,874 hours in the community during bank time, not including many more on personal time.

Employee Feedback
Employee feedback is highly valued at Origin and our employees provide anonymous input via quarterly surveys facilitated by Glint, a LinkedIn company. Our employees consistently rank Origin in the top 10% of Glint’s global customer base with regard to employee engagement. We regularly receive hundreds of written comments each quarter that in turn are used to improve processes, policies, or programs in an effort to show tangible affirmation of those comments. We also have continued a practice that was implemented at the beginning of the pandemic called “The Origin Insider”. This webinar event occurs monthly and features speakers (internal and external) for our employees on a wide range of topics promoting, among other things, employee engagement and satisfaction. The employees are able to submit questions for the speakers in advance of the webinar.
Talent Development
Talent development at Origin begins with our comprehensive recruitment program and continues throughout the employee life cycle. Beginning in 2021 and continuing throughout 2022, we implemented the Giving Interns Valuable Experience (g.i.v.e.) program, and welcomed a very diverse (both in gender and race) group of 27 interns from 17 different universities. The program was successful at promoting Origin’s brand and resulted in strong experiential feedback while also creating job opportunities for four of the 27 interns during 2021 and 2022.
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We utilize assessment tools and provide multiple resources and venues, such as our Career Development Center, for employees to determine what career path is the best fit for them in order to help them grow and enhance their promotional opportunities. We also provide advanced leadership development via our Leadership Academy classes, which provide structured training, collaboration with other aspiring leaders throughout the organization, and mentoring relationships. In addition, we provide a senior-level two-year class called the Origin Leadership Academy, which focuses on the development of next-generation executives. Participants in the Origin Leadership Academy are appointed by senior management. Further, all employees are eligible to apply for participation in the “Emerging Leaders Council”, which is a one-year program designed to train and develop emerging leaders in our organization. Beginning in 2021, we implemented a program called “Career Manager” which provides young professionals within our organization one-on-one time with senior leaders to enhance their career aspirations and accelerate their understanding of the business of banking. This program also helps with employee retention. The pilot class included five individuals who all graduated from the program and currently four individuals are in the program. We find benefit in developing our future leaders from within and succession plans are in place for senior level positions as well as many other key leadership positions.
Diversity & Inclusion
At Origin, one of our core values is, genuine respect for yourself and others. This value makes the support of diversity, equity and inclusion a natural fit for our culture and essential to the way we conduct business, foster individual and team enrichment, and participate in our communities. We believe it is only with a diverse, equitable, and inclusive workplace that the organization can truly perform at its best, carry out its vision, and make a difference in the communities we serve. We believe all employees should be given opportunities to perform to their full potential, knowing their performance will be measured and rewarded fairly.
In 2023, Origin Bank announced our newly formed Diversity Council, which consists of 18 diverse employees that will collectively advance our Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion efforts in a way that makes a difference within our workplace and in the communities we serve.
In order to support and enhance our culture, the Company’s talent acquisition team attends job fairs that attract ethnically and culturally diverse employees. We also have engaged a third-party workforce development company that utilizes a connected system of job recruiting sites that post our employment opportunities with various groups that include, but are not limited to the following: veterans, LGBTQ-identifying individuals, individuals with disabilities, minorities and women, professional and industry organizations, skilled trade associations and college students. Also, we have a formal internship program that is designed to develop a strong pool of diverse candidates through on-campus recruiting with local colleges and universities including local Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Additionally, all employees participate in diversity training and managers have additional, in-depth training on recognizing unconscious biases and access to brand new micro learning lessons every week to help respond to current needs around diversity and inclusion.
Also, we recently introduced VIBE Central in Workday. VIBE stands for Value, Inclusion, Belonging and Equity. This allows senior leaders in our organization to set goals and monitor progress by assessing, measuring, benchmarking, and managing diversity and inclusion by the dimensions of their choice, such as race/ethnicity and gender.
Origin has been recognized as a “Best Bank to Work For” by American Banker magazine for ten consecutive years and was named the 2nd "Best Bank to Work For" in America in 2022, which we believe is attributable to our deep commitment to corporate culture, and our focus on initiatives to support and develop our employees. This ranking is based on feedback from surveys given directly to the American Banker magazine from our employees. We have built our success on valued relationships beginning with our employees, who then build long-term, customer-focused relationships throughout our footprint.
None of our employees are represented by any collective bargaining unit or are parties to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that our relations with our employees are good.
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Corporate Information
We were organized as a business corporation in 1991 under the laws of the state of Louisiana. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 South Service Road East, Ruston, Louisiana 71270, and our telephone number is (318) 255-2222. Our website is www.origin.bank. We make available at this address, free of charge, our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our annual reports to stockholders, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended ("Exchange Act"), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"). These documents are also available on the SEC's website at www.sec.gov. The information contained on, or accessible from, our website does not constitute a part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and is not incorporated by reference herein.
Supervision, Regulation and Other Factors
We are extensively regulated under federal and state law. The following is a brief summary that does not purport to be a complete description of all regulations that affect us or all aspects of those regulations. This discussion is qualified in its entirety by reference to the particular statutory and regulatory provisions described below and is not intended to be an exhaustive description of the statutes or regulations applicable to the Company’s and Origin Bank’s business. In addition, proposals to change the laws and regulations governing the banking industry are frequently raised at both the state and federal levels. The likelihood and timing of any changes in these laws and regulations, and the impact such changes may have on us and Origin Bank, are difficult to predict. Regulatory agencies may issue enforcement actions, policy statements, interpretive letters and similar written guidance applicable to us or to Origin Bank. Changes in applicable laws, regulations or regulatory guidance, or their interpretation by regulatory agencies or courts may have a material adverse effect on our and Origin Bank’s business, operations, and earnings.
Origin Bank, and in some cases, we and our nonbank affiliates, must undergo regular examinations by the appropriate regulatory agency, which will examine for adherence to a range of legal and regulatory compliance responsibilities. A bank regulator conducting an examination has complete access to the books and records of the examined institution. The results of the examination are confidential. Supervision and regulation of banks, their holding companies and affiliates is intended primarily for the protection of depositors and clients, the Deposit Insurance Fund (the “DIF”) of the FDIC, and the U.S. banking and financial system rather than holders of our securities.
Regulation of the Company
We are registered as a bank holding company with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”) under the Bank Holding Company Act, as amended (the “BHC Act”) and have elected to be treated as a financial holding company. As such, we are subject to comprehensive supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve and are subject to its regulatory reporting requirements. Federal law subjects bank holding companies, such as the Company, to restrictions on the types of activities in which they may engage, and to a range of supervisory requirements. In addition, the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions (the “OFI”) regulates bank holding companies that own Louisiana-chartered banks, such as us, under the bank holding company laws of the State of Louisiana. Various federal and state bodies regulate and supervise our non-bank activities including our insurance agency activities. These include, but are not limited to, various state regulators of insurance activities.
Violations of laws and regulations, or other unsafe and unsound practices, may result in regulatory agencies imposing fines or penalties, cease and desist orders, or taking other enforcement actions. Under certain circumstances, these agencies may enforce these remedies directly against officers, directors, employees and other parties participating in the affairs of a bank or bank holding company. Like all bank holding companies, we are regulated extensively under federal and state law. Under federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to the safety and soundness of insured depository institutions, state banking regulators, the Federal Reserve, and separately the FDIC as the insurer of bank deposits, have the authority to compel or restrict certain actions on our part if they determine that we have insufficient capital or other resources, or are otherwise operating in a manner that may be deemed to be inconsistent with safe and sound banking practices. Under this authority, our regulators can require us or our subsidiaries to enter into informal or formal supervisory agreements, including board resolutions, memoranda of understanding, written agreements and consent or cease and desist orders, pursuant to which we would be required to take identified corrective actions to address cited concerns and to refrain from taking certain actions.
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If we become subject to and are unable to comply with the terms of any regulatory actions or directives, supervisory agreements, or orders, then we could become subject to additional, heightened supervisory actions and orders, possibly including prompt corrective action restrictions and/or other regulatory actions, including prohibitions on the payment of dividends on our common stock and preferred stock. If our regulators were to take such supervisory actions, then we could, among other things, become subject to significant restrictions on our ability to develop any new business, as well as restrictions on our existing business, and we could be required to raise additional capital, dispose of certain assets and liabilities within a prescribed period of time, or both. The terms of any such action could have a material negative effect on our business, reputation, operating flexibility, financial condition, and the value of our securities.
Activity Limitations
As a financial holding company, we are permitted to engage directly or indirectly in a broader range of activities than those permitted for a bank holding company that has not elected to be a financial holding company. Bank holding companies are generally restricted to engaging in the business of banking, managing or controlling banks and certain other activities determined by the Federal Reserve to be closely related to banking. Financial holding companies may also engage in activities that are considered to be financial in nature, as well as those incidental or, if determined by the Federal Reserve, complementary to financial activities. We rely on our financial holding company status to engage in insurance agency activities.
If Origin Bank ceases to be “well capitalized” or “well managed” under applicable regulatory standards, or if Origin Bank receives a rating of less than satisfactory under the Community Reinvestment Act, the Federal Reserve may, among other things, place limitations on our ability to conduct these broader financial activities or, if the deficiencies persist, require us to divest the banking subsidiary or the businesses engaged in activities permissible only for financial holding companies.
In addition, the Federal Reserve has the power to order a bank holding company or its subsidiaries to terminate any nonbanking activity or terminate its ownership or control of any nonbank subsidiary, when it has reasonable cause to believe that continuation of such activity or such ownership or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial safety, soundness, or stability of any bank subsidiary of that bank holding company. As further described below, each of the Company and Origin Bank is well-capitalized under applicable regulatory standards as of December 31, 2022, and Origin Bank has an overall rating of “Satisfactory” in its most recent CRA evaluation.
Source of Strength Obligations
A bank holding company, such as us, is required to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary bank. The term “source of financial strength” means the ability of a company, such as us, that directly or indirectly owns or controls an insured depository institution, such as Origin Bank, to provide financial assistance to such insured depository institution in the event of financial distress. The appropriate federal banking agency for the depository institution (in the case of Origin Bank, this agency is the Federal Reserve) may require reports from us to assess our ability to serve as a source of strength and to enforce compliance with the source of strength requirements by requiring us to provide financial assistance to Origin Bank in the event of financial distress. If we were to enter bankruptcy or become subject to the orderly liquidation process established by the Dodd-Frank Act, any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of Origin Bank would be assumed by the bankruptcy trustee or the FDIC, as appropriate, and entitled to a priority of payment. In addition, the FDIC provides that any insured depository institution generally will be liable for any loss incurred by the FDIC in connection with the default of, or any assistance provided by the FDIC to, a commonly controlled insured depository institution. Origin Bank is an FDIC-insured depository institution and thus subject to these requirements.
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Acquisitions
The BHC Act permits acquisitions of banks by bank holding companies, such that we and any other bank holding company, whether located in Louisiana or elsewhere, may acquire a bank located in any other state, subject to certain deposit-percentage, age of bank charter requirements, and other restrictions. The BHC Act requires that a bank holding company obtain the prior approval of the Federal Reserve before (i) acquiring direct or indirect ownership or control of more than 5% of the voting shares of any additional bank or bank holding company, (ii) taking any action that causes an additional bank or bank holding company to become a subsidiary of the bank holding company, or (iii) merging or consolidating with any other bank holding company. The Federal Reserve may not approve any such transaction that would result in a monopoly or would be in furtherance of any combination or conspiracy to monopolize or attempt to monopolize the business of banking in any section of the United States, or the effect of which may be substantially to lessen competition or to tend to create a monopoly in any section of the country, or that in any other manner would be in restraint of trade, unless the anticompetitive effects of the proposed transaction are clearly outweighed in the public interest by the probable effect of the transaction in meeting the convenience and needs of the community to be served. The Federal Reserve is also required to consider: (1) the financial and managerial resources of the companies involved, including pro forma capital ratios; (2) the risk to the stability of the United States banking or financial system; (3) the convenience and needs of the communities to be served, including performance under the CRA; and (4) the effectiveness of the company in combatting money laundering.
Change in Control
Federal law restricts the amount of voting stock of a bank holding company or a bank that a person may acquire without the prior approval of banking regulators. Under the Change in Bank Control Act and the regulations thereunder, a person or group must give advance notice to the Federal Reserve before acquiring control of any bank holding company, such as the Company, or before acquiring control of any FDIC-insured bank, such as Origin Bank. Upon receipt of such notice, the Federal Reserve may approve or disapprove the acquisition. The Change in Bank Control Act creates a rebuttable presumption of control if a person or group acquires the power to vote 10% or more of our outstanding common stock. The overall effect of such laws is to make it more difficult to acquire a bank holding company and a bank by tender offer or similar means than it might be to acquire control of another type of corporation. Consequently, shareholders of the Company may be less likely to benefit from the rapid increases in stock prices that may result from tender offers or similar efforts to acquire control of other companies. Investors should be aware of these requirements when acquiring shares of our stock.
Governance and Financial Reporting Obligations
We are required to comply with various corporate governance and financial reporting requirements under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, as well as rules and regulations adopted by the SEC, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board ("PCAOB"), and the Nasdaq. In particular, we are required to include management and independent registered public accounting firm reports on internal controls as part of our Annual Report on Form 10-K in order to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. We have evaluated our controls, including compliance with the SEC rules on internal controls, and have and expect to continue to spend significant amounts of time and money on compliance with these rules. Our failure to comply with these internal control rules may materially adversely affect our reputation, ability to obtain the necessary certifications to financial statements, and the values of our securities.
Volcker Rule
Section 13 of the BHC Act, commonly referred to as the “Volcker Rule,” generally prohibits banking organizations from (i) engaging in certain proprietary trading, and (ii) acquiring or retaining an ownership interest in or sponsoring a “covered fund,” all subject to certain exceptions. The Volcker Rule also specifies certain limited activities in which banking organizations may continue to engage and requires us to maintain a compliance program. Banking organizations, such as us, with $10 billion or less in total consolidated assets and with total trading assets and liabilities of less than 5% of total consolidated assets are exempt from the Volcker Rule.
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Incentive Compensation
The Dodd-Frank Act required the federal banking agencies and the SEC to establish joint rules or guidelines for financial institutions with more than $1 billion in assets, such as us and Origin Bank, which prohibit incentive compensation arrangements that the agencies determine to encourage inappropriate risks by the institution. The federal banking agencies issued proposed rules in 2011 and previously issued guidance on sound incentive compensation policies. In 2016, the federal banking agencies and the SEC proposed rules that would, depending upon the assets of the institution, directly regulate incentive compensation arrangements and would require enhanced oversight and recordkeeping. As of December 31, 2022, these rules have not been implemented. Further, the capital conservation buffer described above would limit discretionary bonus payments to bank executives if the institution's regulatory capital ratios failed to exceed certain thresholds. We and Origin Bank have undertaken efforts to ensure that our incentive compensation plans do not encourage inappropriate risks, consistent with three key principles - that incentive compensation arrangements should appropriately balance risk and financial rewards, be compatible with effective controls and risk management, and be supported by strong corporate governance.
Other Regulatory Matters
We and our subsidiaries are subject to oversight by the SEC, the PCAOB, the Nasdaq, and various state securities and insurance regulators. We and our subsidiaries have from time to time received requests for information from regulatory authorities in various states, including state attorneys general, securities regulators and other regulatory authorities, concerning our business practices. Such requests are considered incidental to the normal conduct of business.
Capital Requirements
We and Origin Bank are required under federal law to maintain certain minimum capital levels based on ratios of capital to total assets and capital to risk-weighted assets. The required capital ratios are minimums, and the Federal Reserve may determine that a banking organization, based on its size, complexity or risk profile, must maintain a higher level of capital in order to operate in a safe and sound manner. Risks such as concentration of credit risks and the risk arising from non-traditional activities, as well as the institution’s exposure to a decline in the economic value of its capital due to changes in interest rates, and an institution’s ability to manage those risks, are important factors that are to be taken into account in assessing an institution’s overall capital adequacy. The following is a brief description of the relevant provisions of these capital rules and their potential impact on our capital levels.
We and Origin Bank are subject to the following risk-based capital ratios: a CET1 risk-based capital ratio, a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, which includes CET1 and additional Tier 1 capital, and a total risk-based capital ratio, which includes Tier 1 and Tier 2 capital. CET1 is primarily comprised of the sum of common stock instruments and related surplus net of treasury stock plus retained earnings less certain adjustments and deductions, including with respect to goodwill, intangible assets, mortgage servicing assets and deferred tax assets subject to temporary timing differences. Additional Tier 1 capital is primarily comprised of noncumulative perpetual preferred stock. Tier 2 capital consists of instruments disqualified from Tier 1 capital, including qualifying subordinated debt and a limited amount of loan loss reserves up to a maximum of 1.25% of risk-weighted assets, subject to certain eligibility criteria. The capital rules also define the risk-weights assigned to assets and off-balance sheet items to determine the risk-weighted asset components of the risk-based capital rules, including, for example, certain “high volatility” commercial real estate, past due assets, structured securities and equity holdings.
The leverage capital ratio, which serves as a minimum capital standard, is the ratio of Tier 1 capital to quarterly average total consolidated assets net of goodwill, certain other intangible assets, and certain required deduction items. The required minimum leverage ratio for all banks and bank holding companies is 4%.
In addition, effective January 1, 2019, the capital rules required a capital conservation buffer of 2.5%, comprised of CET1, above each of the minimum risk-based capital ratio requirements (CET1, Tier 1, and total capital), which is designed to absorb losses during periods of economic stress. These buffer requirements must be met for a bank or bank holding company to be able to pay dividends, engage in share buybacks or make discretionary bonus payments to executive management without restriction.
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The FDICIA, among other things, requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to take “prompt corrective action” regarding depository institutions that do not meet minimum capital requirements. FDICIA establishes five regulatory capital tiers: “well capitalized”, “adequately capitalized”, “undercapitalized”, “significantly undercapitalized”, and “critically undercapitalized”. A depository institution’s capital tier will depend upon how its capital levels compare to various relevant capital measures and certain other factors, as established by regulation. FDICIA generally prohibits a depository institution from making any capital distribution (including payment of a dividend) or paying any management fee to its holding company if the depository institution would thereafter be undercapitalized. The FDICIA imposes progressively more restrictive restraints on operations, management and capital distributions, depending on the category in which an institution is classified. Undercapitalized depository institutions are subject to restrictions on borrowing from the Federal Reserve System. In addition, undercapitalized depository institutions may not accept brokered deposits absent a waiver from the FDIC, are subject to growth limitations and are required to submit capital restoration plans for regulatory approval. A depository institution's holding company must guarantee any required capital restoration plan, up to an amount equal to the lesser of 5% of the depository institution's assets at the time it becomes undercapitalized or the amount of the capital deficiency when the institution fails to comply with the plan. Federal banking agencies may not accept a capital plan without determining, among other things, that the plan is based on realistic assumptions and is likely to succeed in restoring the depository institution's capital. If a depository institution fails to submit an acceptable plan, it is treated as if it is significantly undercapitalized.
To be well-capitalized, Origin Bank must maintain at least the following capital ratios:
•    6.5% CET1 to risk-weighted assets;
•    8.0% Tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets;
•    10.0% Total capital to risk-weighted assets; and
•    5.0% leverage ratio.
The Federal Reserve has not yet revised the well-capitalized standard for bank holding companies to reflect the higher capital requirements imposed under the current capital rules applicable to banks. For purposes of the Federal Reserve’s Regulation Y, including determining whether a bank holding company meets the requirements to be a financial holding company, bank holding companies, such as the Company, must maintain a Tier 1 risk-based capital ratio of 6.0% or greater and a total risk-based capital ratio of 10.0% or greater to be well-capitalized. Also, the Federal Reserve may require bank holding companies, including the Company, to maintain capital ratios substantially in excess of mandated minimum levels, depending upon general economic conditions and a bank holding company’s particular condition, risk profile and growth plans.
Failure to be well-capitalized or to meet minimum capital requirements could result in certain mandatory and possible additional discretionary actions by regulators that, if undertaken, could have an adverse material effect on our operations or financial condition. Failure to meet minimum capital requirements could also result in restrictions on the Company’s or Origin Bank’s ability to pay dividends or otherwise distribute capital or to receive regulatory approval of applications or other restrictions on its growth.
In 2022, the Company’s and Origin Bank’s regulatory capital ratios were above the applicable well-capitalized standards and met the capital conservation buffer. Based on current estimates, we believe that the Company and Origin Bank will continue to exceed all applicable well-capitalized regulatory capital requirements and the capital conservation buffer in 2023. Please see Note 18 - Capital and Regulatory Matters in the notes to the consolidated financial statements for consolidated capital ratios of the Company and Origin Bank as of December 31, 2022.
Payment of Dividends
We are a legal entity separate and distinct from Origin Bank and our other subsidiaries. Under the laws of the State of Louisiana, we, as a business corporation, may declare and pay dividends in cash or property unless the payment or declaration would be contrary to restrictions contained in our Articles of Incorporation, or unless, after payment of the dividend, we would not be able to pay our debts when they become due in the usual course of our business or our total assets would be less than the sum of our total liabilities. In addition, we are also subject to federal regulatory capital requirements that effectively limit the amount of cash dividends that we may pay.
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The primary sources of funds for our payment of dividends to our shareholders are cash on hand and dividends from Origin Bank and our non-bank subsidiaries. Various federal and state statutory provisions and regulations limit the amount of dividends that Origin Bank may pay. Origin Bank is subject to certain restrictions on dividends under federal and state laws, regulations and policies. In general, Origin Bank may pay dividends to us without the approval of the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions so long as the amount of the dividend does not exceed the bank's net profits earned during the current year combined with its retained net profits of the immediately preceding year. The bank is required to obtain the approval of the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions for any amount in excess of this threshold. Additionally, to pay dividends to us, under Louisiana law Origin Bank must have unimpaired surplus that equals or exceeds fifty percent of its outstanding capital stock. Further, under federal law, Origin Bank may not pay any dividend to us if it is undercapitalized or the payment of the dividend would cause it to become undercapitalized.
In addition, we and Origin Bank are subject to various general regulatory policies and requirements relating to the payment of dividends, including requirements to maintain adequate capital above regulatory minimums. The Federal Reserve has indicated that paying dividends that deplete a bank’s capital base to an inadequate level would be an unsafe and unsound banking practice. The Federal Reserve has indicated that depository institutions and their holding companies should generally pay dividends only out of current operating earnings.
Under a Federal Reserve policy adopted in 2009, the board of directors of a bank holding company must consider different factors to ensure that its dividend level is prudent relative to maintaining a strong financial position, and is not based on overly optimistic earnings scenarios, such as potential events that could affect its ability to pay, while still maintaining a strong financial position. As a general matter, the Federal Reserve has indicated that the board of directors of a bank holding company should consult with the Federal Reserve and eliminate, defer or significantly reduce the bank holding company’s dividends if:
•    its net income available to shareholders for the past four quarters, net of dividends previously paid during that period, is not sufficient to fully fund the dividends;
•    its prospective rate of earnings retention is not consistent with its capital needs and overall current and prospective financial condition; or
•    it will not meet, or is in danger of not meeting, its minimum regulatory capital adequacy ratios.
Regulation of the Bank
Origin Bank, which is a member of the Federal Reserve System, is subject to comprehensive supervision and regulation by the Federal Reserve, and is subject to its regulatory reporting requirements, as well as supervision and regulation by the OFI. As a member bank of the Federal Reserve System, Origin Bank is required to hold stock in its district Federal Reserve Bank in an amount equal to 6% of its capital stock and surplus (half paid to acquire stock with the remainder held as a cash reserve). Member banks do not have any control over the Federal Reserve System as a result of owning the stock and the stock cannot be sold or traded. The annual dividend rate for member banks with $10 billion or less in total assets is fixed at 6%, which currently applies to us. However, the annual dividend rate for member banks with total assets in excess of $10 billion, is based on a floating dividend rate tied to10-year U.S. Treasuries with the maximum dividend rate capped at 6%.
The deposits of Origin Bank are insured by the FDIC up to applicable limits, and, accordingly, Origin Bank is also subject to certain FDIC regulations and the FDIC has backup examination authority and some enforcement powers over Origin Bank. In addition, as discussed in more detail below, Origin Bank and any other of our subsidiaries that offer consumer financial products and services are subject to regulation by the CFPB. In addition, the Dodd-Frank Act permits states to adopt consumer protection laws and regulations that are stricter than those regulations promulgated by the CFPB, and state attorneys general are permitted to enforce certain federal consumer financial protection law.
Broadly, regulations applicable to Origin Bank include limitations on loans to a single borrower and to its directors, officers and employees; restrictions on the opening and closing of branch offices; the maintenance of required capital ratios; the granting of credit under equal and fair conditions; the disclosure of the costs and terms of such credit; requirements to maintain reserves against deposits and loans; limitations on the types of investment that may be made by Origin Bank; and requirements governing risk management practices. Subject to Federal Reserve approval and certain state filing requirements, Origin Bank is permitted under federal law to branch on a de novo basis across state lines wherever the laws of that state would permit a bank chartered by that state to establish a branch.
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Transactions with Affiliates and Insiders
Origin Bank is subject to restrictions on extensions of credit and certain other transactions between Origin Bank and the Company or any nonbank affiliate. Generally, these covered transactions with either the Company or any affiliate are limited to 10% of Origin Bank’s capital and surplus, and all such transactions between Origin Bank and the Company and all of its nonbank affiliates combined are limited to 20% of Origin Bank’s capital and surplus. Loans and other extensions of credit from Origin Bank to the Company or any affiliate generally are required to be secured by eligible collateral in specified amounts. In addition, any transaction between Origin Bank and the Company or any affiliate are required to be on an arm’s length basis. Federal banking laws also place similar restrictions on certain extensions of credit by insured banks, such as Origin Bank, to their directors, executive officers and principal shareholders.
FDIC Insurance Assessments and Depositor Preference
Origin Bank’s deposits are insured by the FDIC’s DIF up to the limits under applicable law, which currently are set at $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. Origin Bank is subject to FDIC assessments for its deposit insurance. The FDIC calculates quarterly deposit insurance assessments based on an institution’s average total consolidated assets less its average tangible equity, and determines the applicable rate based upon a range of factors, including certain additional factors for institutions in excess of $10 billion assets. The assessment rate schedule can change from time to time, at the discretion of the FDIC, subject to certain limits.
As of June 30, 2020, the DIF reserve ratio fell to 1.30%, below the statutory minimum of 1.35%. The FDIC, as required under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, established a plan on September 15, 2020 to restore the DIF reserve ratio to meet or exceed the statutory minimum of 1.35% within eight years. On October 18, 2022, the FDIC adopted an amended restoration plan to increase the likelihood that the reserve ratio would be restored to at least 1.35 percent by September 30, 2028. The FDIC’s amended restoration plan increases the initial base deposit insurance assessment rate schedules uniformly by 2 basis points, beginning in the first quarterly assessment period of 2023. The FDIC could further increase the deposit insurance assessments for certain insured depository institutions, including Origin Bank, if the DIF reserve ratio is not restored as projected.
Insurance of deposits may be terminated by the FDIC upon a finding that the institution has engaged in unsafe and unsound practices, is in an unsafe or unsound condition to continue operations, or has violated any applicable law, regulation, rule, order or condition imposed by a bank’s federal regulatory agency. In addition, the Federal Deposit Insurance Act provides that, in the event of the liquidation or other resolution of an insured depository institution, the claims of depositors of the institution, including the claims of the FDIC as subrogee of insured depositors, and certain claims for administrative expenses of the FDIC as a receiver, will have priority over other general unsecured claims against the institution, including those of the parent bank holding company.
Standards for Safety and Soundness
The Federal Deposit Insurance Act requires the federal bank regulatory agencies to prescribe, by regulation or guideline, operational and managerial standards for all insured depository institutions relating to: (1) internal controls; (2) information systems and audit systems; (3) loan documentation; (4) credit underwriting; (5) interest rate risk exposure; and (6) asset quality. The federal banking agencies have adopted regulations and Interagency Guidelines Establishing Standards for Safety and Soundness to implement these required standards. These guidelines set forth the safety and soundness standards used to identify and address problems at insured depository institutions before capital becomes impaired. Under the regulations, if a regulator determines that a bank fails to meet any standards prescribed by the guidelines, the regulator may require the bank to submit an acceptable plan to achieve compliance, consistent with deadlines for the submission and review of such safety and soundness compliance plans.
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Anti-Money Laundering
A continued focus of governmental policy relating to financial institutions in recent years has been combating money laundering and terrorist financing. The USA PATRIOT Act broadened the application of anti-money laundering regulations to apply to additional types of financial institutions such as broker-dealers, investment advisors and insurance companies, and strengthened the ability of the U.S. Government to help prevent, detect and prosecute international money laundering and the financing of terrorism. The principal provisions of Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act require that regulated financial institutions, including state member banks: (i) establish an anti-money laundering program that includes training and audit components; (ii) comply with regulations regarding the verification of the identity of any person seeking to open an account; (iii) take additional required precautions with non-U.S. owned accounts; and (iv) perform certain verification and certification of money laundering risk for their foreign correspondent banking relationships. Failure of a financial institution to comply with the USA PATRIOT Act’s requirements could have serious legal and reputational consequences for the institution. Origin Bank has augmented its systems and procedures to meet the requirements of these regulations and will continue to revise and update its policies, procedures and controls to reflect changes required by law.
FinCEN has adopted rules that require financial institutions to obtain beneficial ownership information with respect to legal entities with which such institutions conduct business, subject to certain exclusions and exemptions. Bank regulators are focusing their examinations on anti-money laundering compliance, and we continue to monitor and augment, where necessary, our anti-money laundering compliance programs. Banking regulators will consider compliance with the Act’s money laundering provisions in acting upon merger and acquisition proposals. Bank regulators routinely examine institutions for compliance with these obligations and have been active in imposing cease and desist and other regulatory orders and money penalty sanctions against institutions found to be violating these obligations. Sanctions for violations of the Act can be imposed in an amount equal to twice the sum involved in the violating transaction, up to $1 million. On January 1, 2021, Congress passed federal legislation that made sweeping changes to federal anti-money laundering laws, including changes that will be implemented in subsequent years. On June 30, 2021, FinCEN published the first set of “national AML priorities,” as required by the Bank Secrecy Act, which include, but are not limited to, cybercrime, terrorist financing, fraud, and drug/human trafficking. FinCEN is required to implement regulations to specify how covered financial institutions, such as the Company, should incorporate these national priorities into their AML programs. As of December 31, 2022, no such regulations have been proposed.
Economic Sanctions
The OFAC is responsible for helping to ensure that U.S. entities do not engage in transactions with certain prohibited parties, as defined by various Executive Orders and acts of Congress. OFAC publishes, and routinely updates, lists of names of persons and organizations suspected of aiding, harboring or engaging in terrorist acts, including the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List. If we find a name on any transaction, account or wire transfer that is on an OFAC list, we must undertake certain specified activities, which could include blocking or freezing the account or transaction requested, and we must notify the appropriate authorities.
Concentrations in Lending
During 2006, the federal bank regulatory agencies released guidance on “Concentrations in Commercial Real Estate Lending” (the “Guidance”) and advised financial institutions of the risks posed by CRE lending concentrations. The Guidance requires that appropriate processes be in place to identify, monitor and control risks associated with real estate lending concentrations. Higher allowances for loan losses and capital levels may also be required. The Guidance is triggered when CRE loan concentrations exceed either:
•    Total reported loans for construction, land development, and other land of 100% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital; or
•    Total reported loans secured by multifamily and nonfarm nonresidential properties and loans for construction, land development, and other land of 300% or more of a bank’s total risk-based capital.
The Guidance also applies when a bank has a sharp increase in CRE loans or has significant concentrations of CRE secured by a particular property type. We have always had exposures to loans secured by CRE due to the nature of our markets and the loan needs of both consumer and commercial clients. We believe our long-term experience in CRE lending, underwriting policies, internal controls, and other policies currently in place, as well as our loan and credit monitoring and administration procedures, are generally appropriate to managing our concentrations as required under the Guidance. As of December 31, 2022, our CRE loan concentrations were below the Guidance thresholds discussed above.
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Debit Interchange Fees
Debit card interchange fee restrictions set forth in the Durbin Amendment, as implemented by regulations of the Federal Reserve, cap the maximum debit interchange fee that a debit card issuer may receive per transaction. The maximum permissible interchange fee that a non-exempt issuer may receive for an electronic debit transaction is the sum of 21 cents per transaction and 5 bps multiplied by the value of the transaction, subject to an upward adjustment of 1 cent if an issuer certifies that it has implemented policies and procedures reasonably designed to achieve the fraud-prevention standards set forth by the Federal Reserve. In addition, card issuers and networks are prohibited from entering into arrangements requiring that debit card transactions be processed on a single network or only two affiliated networks and allows merchants to determine transaction routing.
Debit card issuers with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion are exempt from these interchange fee restrictions. The exemption for small issuers ceases to apply as of July 1 of the year following the calendar year in which the debit card issuer has total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more at calendar year end.
Community Reinvestment Act
Origin Bank is subject to the provisions of the CRA, which imposes a continuing and affirmative obligation, consistent with safe and sound operation, to help meet the credit needs of entire communities where the bank accepts deposits, including low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. The Federal Reserve’s assessment of Origin Bank’s CRA record is made available to the public. CRA agreements with private parties must be disclosed and annual CRA reports must be made to the Federal Reserve. A bank holding company will not be permitted to become or remain a financial holding company and no new activities authorized under GLB may be commenced by a holding company or by a bank financial subsidiary if any of its bank subsidiaries received less than a “satisfactory” CRA rating in its latest CRA examination. Federal CRA regulations require, among other things, that evidence of discrimination against applicants on a prohibited basis, and illegal or abusive lending practices be considered in the CRA evaluation. Origin Bank has a rating of “Satisfactory” in its most recent CRA evaluation.
On May 5, 2022, the OCC, FRB, and FDIC issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to provide for a coordinated approach to modernize their respective CRA regulations, such that all banks will be subject to the same set of CRA rules. No final rule has been issued, but the rulemaking may affect Origin Bank’s CRA compliance obligations in the future.
Privacy, Credit Reporting, and Data Security
The GLB generally prohibits disclosure of non-public consumer information to non-affiliated third parties unless the consumer has been given the opportunity to object and has not objected to such disclosure. Financial institutions are further required to disclose their privacy policies to clients annually. Financial institutions, however, will be required to comply with state law if it is more protective of consumer privacy than the GLB. The GLB also directed federal regulators to prescribe standards for the security of consumer information. Origin Bank is subject to such standards, as well as standards for notifying clients in the event of a security breach. Origin Bank utilizes credit bureau data in underwriting activities. Use of such data is regulated under the Fair Credit Reporting Act and Regulation V on a uniform, nationwide basis, including credit reporting, prescreening, and sharing of information between affiliates and the use of credit data. The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act, which amended the Fair Credit Reporting Act, permits states to enact identity theft laws that are not inconsistent with the conduct required by the provisions of that Act. Clients must be notified when unauthorized disclosure involves sensitive client information that may be misused. On November 18, 2021, the federal banking agencies issued a new rule effective in 2022 that requires banks to notify their primary federal regulator within 36 hours of a “computer-security incident” that rises to the level of a “notification incident.”
The federal banking regulators regularly issue guidance regarding cybersecurity intended to enhance cyber risk management standards among financial institutions. As a result, financial institutions, like the Company and Origin Bank, are expected to establish multiple lines of defense and to ensure their risk management processes address the risk posed by potential threats to the institution. A financial institution’s management is expected to maintain sufficient processes to effectively respond and recover the institution’s operations after a cyber-attack. A financial institution is also expected to develop appropriate processes to enable recovery of data and business operations if a critical service provider of the institution falls victim to this type of cyber-attack. Our information security protocols are designed in part to adhere to the requirements of this guidance.
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State regulators have also been increasingly active in implementing privacy and cybersecurity standards and regulations. Recently, several states have adopted regulations requiring certain financial institutions to implement cybersecurity programs and providing detailed requirements with respect to these programs, including data encryption requirements. Many states have also recently implemented or modified their data breach notification and data privacy requirements. We expect this trend of state-level activity in those areas to continue and are continually monitoring developments in the states in which our clients are located.
Anti-Tying Restrictions
In general, a bank may not extend credit, lease, sell property, or furnish any services or fix or vary the consideration for them on the condition that (1) the client obtain or provide some additional credit, property, or services from or to the bank or bank holding company or their subsidiaries or (2) the client not obtain some other credit, property, or services from a competitor, except to the extent reasonable conditions are imposed to assure the soundness of the credit extended. A bank may, however, offer combined-balance products and may otherwise offer more favorable terms if a client obtains two or more traditional bank products. The law also expressly permits banks to engage in other forms of tying and authorizes the Federal Reserve Board to grant additional exceptions by regulation or order. Also, certain foreign transactions are exempt from the general rule.
Consumer Regulation
Activities of Origin Bank are subject to a variety of statutes and regulations designed to protect consumers. These laws and regulations include, among numerous other things, provisions that:
•    limit the interest and other charges collected or contracted for by Origin Bank, including rules respecting the terms of credit cards and of debit card overdrafts;
•    govern Origin Bank’s disclosures of credit terms to consumer borrowers;
•    require Origin Bank to provide information to enable the public and public officials to determine whether it is fulfilling its obligation to help meet the housing needs of the communities it serves;
•    prohibit Origin Bank from discriminating on the basis of race, creed or other prohibited factors when it makes decisions to extend credit;
•    govern the manner in which Origin Bank may collect consumer debts; and
•    prohibit unfair, deceptive or abusive acts or practices in the provision of consumer financial products and services.
Mortgage Regulation
The CFPB adopted a rule that implements the ability-to-repay and qualified mortgage provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act (the “ATR/QM rule”), which requires lenders to consider, among other things, income, employment status, assets, payment amounts, and credit history before approving a mortgage, and provides a compliance “safe harbor” for lenders that issue certain “qualified mortgages.” The ATR/QM rule defines a “qualified mortgage” to have certain specified characteristics, and generally prohibits loans with negative amortization, interest-only payments, balloon payments, or terms exceeding 30 years from being qualified mortgages. The rule also establishes general underwriting criteria for qualified mortgages, including that monthly payments be calculated based on the highest payment that will apply in the first five years of the loan and that the borrower have a total debt-to-income ratio that is less than or equal to 43%. While “qualified mortgages” will generally be afforded safe harbor status, a rebuttable presumption of compliance with the ability-to-repay requirements will attach to “qualified mortgages” that are “higher priced mortgages” (which are generally subprime loans). In addition, the securitizer of asset-backed securities must retain not less than 5% of the credit risk of the assets collateralizing the asset-backed securities, unless subject to an exemption for asset-backed securities that are collateralized exclusively by residential mortgages that qualify as “qualified residential mortgages.”
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The CFPB has also issued rules to implement requirements of the Dodd-Frank Act pertaining to mortgage loan origination (including with respect to loan originator compensation and loan originator qualifications) as well as integrated mortgage disclosure rules. In addition, the CFPB has issued rules that require servicers to comply with certain standards and practices with regard to: error correction; information disclosure; force-placement of insurance; information management policies and procedures; requiring information about mortgage loss mitigation options be provided to delinquent borrowers; providing delinquent borrowers access to servicer personnel with continuity of contact about the borrower’s mortgage loan account; and evaluating borrowers’ applications for available loss mitigation options. These rules also address initial rate adjustment notices for adjustable-rate mortgages, periodic statements for residential mortgage loans, and prompt crediting of mortgage payments and response to requests for payoff amounts.
The CARES Act granted certain forbearance rights and protection against foreclosure to borrowers with a “federally backed mortgage loan,” including certain first or subordinate lien loans designed principally for the occupancy of one to four families. These consumer protections continued during the COVID-19 pandemic emergency.
Non-Discrimination Policies
Origin Bank is also subject to, among other things, the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act and the Fair Housing Act, both of which prohibit discrimination based on race or color, religion, national origin, sex, and familial status in any aspect of a consumer or commercial credit or residential real estate transaction. The Department of Justice, and the federal bank regulatory agencies have issued an Interagency Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending that provides guidance to financial institutions in determining whether discrimination exists, how the agencies will respond to lending discrimination, and what steps lenders might take to prevent discriminatory lending practices. The DOJ has increased its efforts to prosecute what it regards as violations of the ECOA and FHA.
Effect of Governmental Monetary Policies.
The commercial banking business is affected not only by general economic conditions but also by U.S. fiscal policy and the monetary policies of the Federal Reserve. Some of the instruments of monetary policy available to the Federal Reserve include changes in the discount rate on member bank borrowings, the fluctuating availability of borrowings at the "discount window" and open market operations as directed by the Federal Open Market Committee. These policies influence to a significant extent the overall growth of bank loans, investments, and deposits and the interest rates charged on loans or paid on deposits. We cannot predict the nature of future fiscal and monetary policies or the effect of these policies on our operations and activities, financial condition, results of operations, growth plans or future prospects.
LIBOR
On March 15, 2022, Congress enacted the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (the “LIBOR Act”) to address references to LIBOR in contracts that (i) are governed by U.S. law; (ii) will not mature before June 30, 2023; and (iii) lack fallback provisions providing for a clearly defined and practicable replacement for LIBOR. On December 16, 2022, the FRB adopted a final rule to implement the LIBOR Act by identifying benchmark rates based on SOFR (Secured Overnight Financing Rate) that will replace LIBOR in certain financial contracts after June 30, 2023. The final rule identifies replacement benchmark rates based on SOFR to replace overnight, one-month, three-month, six-month, and 12-month LIBOR in contracts subject to the LIBOR Act.
Federal Home Loan Bank System.
Origin Bank is a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, which is one of the 11 regional Federal Home Loan Banks composing the Federal Home Loan Bank system. The Federal Home Loan Banks make loans to their member banks in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Federal Home Loan Bank system and the boards of directors of each regional Federal Home Loan Bank. Any advances from a Federal Home Loan Bank must be secured by specified types of collateral, and all long-term advances may be obtained only for the purpose of providing funds for residential housing finance. As a member of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas, Origin Bank is required to acquire and hold shares of capital stock in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. All loans, advances and other extensions of credit made by the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas to Origin Bank are secured by a portion of Origin Bank's mortgage loan portfolio, certain other investments and the capital stock of the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas held by Origin Bank.
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Item 1A.    Risk Factors
We face many risks and uncertainties, any one or more of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition, prospects or the value of, or return on, an investment in our common stock. You should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all other information included and incorporated by reference in this report, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes contained in Item 8 of this report. We believe the risks described below are material to us as of the date of this report, but these risks are not the only risks that we face. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could also be affected by additional risks that apply to all financial services companies or companies operating in the United States and our specific geographic markets, as well as other risks that are not currently known to us or that we currently consider to be immaterial to our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. If any of these risks actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects could be adversely affected. Further, to the extent that any of the information in this report constitutes forward-looking statements, the risk factors below also are cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements made by us or on our behalf.
Summary
Our business is subject to a number of risks, including risks that may prevent us from achieving our business objectives or may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects. These risks are discussed more fully after the summary, and risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
Current uncertain economic conditions (both domestic and international) pose challenges, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations;
Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition including decreased net interest margin, impact on loan demand, competition for, and increased cost of funding, deposits, and the value of our securities portfolio (including any losses recognized);
We are subject to risks related to inflation, rising prices and the government and Federal Reserve response to the same;
We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk;
Our allowance for loan credit losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio and our earnings could decrease;
Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing certain of our loans;
The deterioration in value of receivables, inventory, equipment or other commercial collateral could expose us to credit losses;
The geographic concentration of our markets in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi makes us more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy;
Our loan portfolio contains a number of large loans to certain borrowers, and deterioration in the financial condition of these borrowers could have a significant adverse impact on our asset quality;
We are subject to various risks associated with COVID-19;
The loss of executive management or other key employees, as well as our ability to attract and retain profitable bankers, could adversely impact our business or reputation;
Unauthorized access, cyber-crime and other threats to data security may cause harm to our business;
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The discontinuation of LIBOR could result in financial, operational, legal, reputational or compliance risks to us;
We may have exposure to tax liabilities that are larger than we anticipate;
The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers' ability to repay loans;
We face significant competition to attract and retain customers, which could impair our growth, decrease our profitability or result in loss of market share;
Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business;
Risks related to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") strategies and initiatives, the scope and pace of which could alter our reputation and shareholder, associate, customer and third-party affiliations;
Our business has grown rapidly, and we may not be able to maintain our historical rate of growth, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully implement our business strategy;
We may pursue acquisitions or new lines of business in the future, which could expose us to financial, execution and operational risks;
We are susceptible to environmental risks, such as hurricanes and other natural disasters, adverse weather and climate change effects;
We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology;
The effectiveness of derivative financial instruments and hedging activities to manage risks;
We are subject to various liquidity risks, credit, and market risks;
Risks related to the extensive use, reliability, disruption, and accuracy of the models and data we rely on;
Our ability to maintain adequate internal controls over financial reporting;
Our reliance on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure;
Risks related to potential claims, damages, penalties, fines and reputational damage resulting from pending or future litigation, regulatory proceedings and enforcement actions;
We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, including accounting policies, standards, and interpretations, could subject us to regulatory consequences;
We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which may result in lower returns on equity, require us to raise additional capital, limit growth opportunities or result in regulatory restrictions;
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations and is subject to risk of loss; and
Other factors and risks described under “Risk Factors” herein and in any of our subsequent reports filed with the SEC and available on our website at www.sec.gov.
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Risks Related to Our Business
Current uncertain economic conditions pose challenges, and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are operating in an uncertain economic environment. The pandemic caused a global economic slowdown, and while we have seen economic recovery, continuing supply chain issues, labor shortages and inflation risk are affecting the continued recovery. Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to customers in the form of loans, borrowing money from customers in the form of deposits and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the U.S. Continued economic uncertainty and a recessionary or stagnant economy could result in financial stress on our borrowers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. We decreased the expense for credit losses over fiscal year 2021 as the economy began to recover, however, deteriorating conditions in the regional economies we serve, or in certain sectors of those economies, could drive losses beyond that which is provided for in our allowance for credit losses. We could also face the following risks in connection with the following events:
inflationary pressures remained elevated throughout 2022 and are likely to continue into 2023;
market developments and economic stagnation or slowdown may affect consumer confidence levels and may cause adverse changes in payment patterns, resulting in increased delinquencies and default rates on loans and other credit facilities;
the processes we use to estimate the allowance for credit losses and other reserves may prove to be unreliable. Such estimates rely upon complex modeling inputs and judgments, including forecasts of economic conditions, which may be rendered inaccurate and/or no longer subject to accurate forecasting;
our ability to assess the creditworthiness of our borrowers may be impaired if the models and approaches we use to select, manage, and underwrite loans become less predictive of future charge-offs;
regulatory scrutiny of the industry could increase, leading to increased regulation of the industry that could lead to a higher cost of compliance, limit our ability to pursue business opportunities and increase our exposure to litigation or fines;
ineffective monetary policy or other market conditions could cause rapid changes in interest rates and asset values that would have a materially adverse impact on our profitability and overall financial condition;
erosion in the fiscal condition of the U.S. Treasury could lead to new taxes that would limit our ability to pursue growth and return profits to shareholders; and
the U.S. government’s decisions regarding its debt ceiling and the possibility that the U.S. could default on its debt obligations may cause further interest rate increases, disrupt access to capital markets and deepen recessionary conditions.
If these conditions or similar ones continue to exist or worsen, we could experience adverse effects on our financial condition.
Changes in interest rates could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.
Significant increases in market interest rates on loans, or the perception that an increase may occur, could adversely affect both our ability to originate new loans and our ability to grow. Beginning early in 2022, in response to growing signs of inflation, the Federal Reserve has increased interest rates rapidly. Further, the Federal Reserve announced an intention to take further actions to mitigate inflationary pressures. Rapid changes in interest rates may make it difficult for us to balance our loan and deposit portfolios, which may adversely affect our results of operations by, for example, reducing asset yields or spreads, or having other adverse impacts on our business. Conversely, decreases in interest rates could result in an acceleration of loan prepayments. The increased market interest rates could also adversely affect the ability of our floating-rate borrowers to meet their higher payment obligations. If this occurred, it could cause an increase in nonperforming assets and charge offs, which could adversely affect our business.
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Further, our earnings and financial condition are dependent to a large degree upon net interest income, which is the difference or spread, between interest earned on interest-earning assets and interest paid on interest-bearing liabilities. When market rates of interest change, the interest we receive on our assets and the interest we pay on our liabilities may fluctuate. This can cause decreases in our spread and can adversely affect our earnings and financial condition.
Interest rates are highly sensitive to many factors including:
The rate of inflation;
Economic conditions;
Federal monetary policies; and
Stability of domestic and foreign markets.
Changes in interest rates can increase or decrease our net interest income, because different types of assets and liabilities may react differently, and at different times, to market interest rate changes. When interest-bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-earning assets in the same period, an increase in interest rates could reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest-earning assets mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could reduce net interest income. As of December 31, 2022, our net interest income simulations projected that 100 and 200 basis point increases in interest rates would result in a positive variance in net interest income of 3.64% and 7.10%, respectively, relative to the base case over the next 12 months, while decreases in interest rates of 100 and 200 basis points would result in a negative variance in net interest income of 2.26% and 6.72%, respectively, relative to the base case over the next 12 months. These are estimates and assume that the composition of our interest sensitive assets and liabilities existing at each year-end will remain constant over the relevant twelve month measurement period and that changes in market interest rates are instant and constant across the yield curve regardless of duration of pricing characteristics of specific assets or liabilities. Changes in market values of investment securities classified as available for sale are impacted by higher rates and can negatively impact our other comprehensive (loss) income and equity levels through accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income, which includes net unrealized gains and losses on those securities. Further, such losses could be realized into earnings should liquidity and/or business strategy necessitate the sales of securities in a loss position.
Additionally, an increase in interest rates may, among other things, reduce the demand for loans and our ability to originate loans and decrease loan repayment rates. A decrease in the general level of interest rates may affect us through, among other things, increased prepayments on our loan portfolio and increased competition for deposits. Accordingly, changes in the level of market interest rates affect our net yield on interest-earning assets, loan origination volume, loan portfolio and our overall results. Moreover, although we have implemented practices we believe will reduce the potential effects of changes in interest rates on our net interest income, these practices may not always be successful. Accordingly, changes in levels of market interest rates could materially and adversely affect our net interest income and our net interest margin, asset quality, loan and lease origination volume, liquidity, and overall profitability. We cannot assure you that we can minimize our interest rate risk.
In addition, we originate residential mortgage loans for sale and for our portfolio. The origination of residential mortgage loans is highly dependent on the local real estate market and the level of interest rates. Increasing interest rates tend to reduce the origination of loans for sale and fee income, which we report as gain on sale of loans. Decreasing interest rates generally result in increased prepayments of loans and mortgage-backed securities, as borrowers refinance their debt in order to reduce their borrowing cost. This typically leads to reinvestment at lower rates than the loans or securities were paying. Changes in market interest rates could also reduce the value of our financial assets. Our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected if we are unsuccessful in managing the effects of changes in interest rates.
Changes in interest rates may change the value of our mortgage servicing rights portfolio, which may increase the volatility of our earnings.
As a result of our mortgage servicing business, we have a portfolio of mortgage servicing rights on unpaid principal balances of $1.90 billion at December 31, 2022. During the second half of 2022, we entered into an agreement to sell our GNMA mortgage servicing rights portfolio, which met all final sale conditions in early 2023. We sold approximately $1.8 million in GNMA mortgage servicing rights, representing $453.3 million in unpaid principal balances and derecognized the related GNMA repurchase asset and offsetting liability of $24.6 million.
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A mortgage servicing right is the right to service a mortgage loan - collect principal, interest and escrow amounts - for a fee. We measure and carry our residential mortgage servicing rights using the fair value measurement method. Fair value is determined as the present value of estimated future net servicing income, calculated based on a number of variables, including assumptions about the likelihood of prepayment by borrowers.
The primary risk associated with mortgage servicing rights is that in a declining interest rate environment, they will likely lose a substantial portion of their value as a result of higher than anticipated prepayments. Moreover, if prepayments are greater than expected, the cash we receive over the life of the mortgage loans would be reduced. Conversely, these assets generally increase in value in a rising interest rate environment to the extent that prepayments are slower than previously estimated. An increase in the size of our mortgage servicing rights portfolio may increase our interest rate risk. At December 31, 2022, our mortgage servicing rights had a fair value of $20.8 million, compared to $16.2 million at December 31, 2021. Changes in fair value of our mortgage servicing rights are recorded to earnings in each period. Depending on the interest rate environment, it is possible that the fair value of our mortgage servicing rights may be reduced in the future. If such changes in fair value significantly reduce the carrying value of our mortgage servicing rights, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.
Inflationary pressures and rising prices may affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Inflation rose in 2022 at levels not seen for over 40 years. Inflationary pressures are likely to continue into 2023. Inflation could lead to increased costs to our customers, making it more difficult for them to repay their loans or other obligations increasing our credit risk. Sustained higher interest rates by the Federal Reserve may be needed to tame persistent inflationary price pressures, which could push down asset prices and weaken economic activity. A deterioration in economic conditions in the United States and our markets could result in an increase in loan delinquencies and non-performing assets, decreases in loan collateral values and a decrease in demand for our products and services, all of which, in turn, would adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Changes to monetary policy by the Federal Reserve could adversely impact our results of operations.
The Federal Reserve is responsible for regulating the supply of money in the United States, including open market operations used to stabilize prices in times of economic stress, as well as setting monetary policies. These activities strongly influence our rate of return on certain investments, our hedge effectiveness for mortgage servicing and our mortgage origination pipeline, as well as our costs of funds for lending and investing, all of which may adversely impact our liquidity, results of operations, financial condition and capital position.
Unstable global economic conditions may have serious adverse consequences on our business, financial condition, and operations.
The global credit and financial markets have from time to time experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, high rates of inflation, and uncertainty about economic stability. The financial markets and the global economy may also be adversely affected by the current or anticipated impact of military conflict, including the current conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which is increasing volatility in commodity and energy prices, creating supply chain issues and causing instability in financial markets. Sanctions imposed by the United States and other countries in response to such conflict could further adversely impact the financial markets and the global economy, and any economic countermeasures by the affected countries or others could exacerbate market and economic instability. The specific consequences of the conflict in Ukraine on our business is difficult to predict at this time, but in addition to inflationary pressures affecting our operations and those of our customers and borrowers, we may also experience an increase in cyberattacks against us, our customers and borrowers, service providers and other third parties. There can be no assurance that further deterioration in markets and confidence in economic conditions will not occur. Our general business strategy may be adversely affected by any such economic downturn, volatile business environment, hostile third-party action or continued unpredictable and unstable market conditions.
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We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.
Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that the principal of, or interest on, a loan will not be repaid timely or at all or that the value of any collateral supporting a loan will be insufficient to cover our outstanding exposure. In addition, we are exposed to risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, and risks inherent in dealing with individual loans and borrowers. The creditworthiness of a borrower is affected by many factors, including local market conditions and general economic conditions. If the overall economic climate in the United States, generally, or our market areas, specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses. Additional factors related to the credit quality of commercial loans include the quality of the management of the business and the borrower's ability both to properly evaluate changes in the supply and demand characteristics affecting our market for products and services and to effectively respond to those changes. Additional factors related to the credit quality of commercial real estate loans include tenant vacancy rates and the quality of management of the property.
Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries and our credit approval, review and administrative practices may not adequately reduce credit risk, and our credit administration personnel, policies and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of the loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio may result in loan defaults, foreclosures and additional charge-offs, and may necessitate that we significantly increase our allowance for credit losses, each of which could adversely affect our net income. As a result, our inability to successfully manage credit risk could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our allowance for loan credit losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio and our earnings could decrease.
Our experience in the banking industry indicates that some portion of our loans will not be fully repaid in a timely manner or at all. Accordingly, we maintain an allowance for loan credit losses that represents management's judgment of expected losses and risks inherent in our loan portfolio. The level of the allowance reflects management's continuing evaluation of general economic conditions, diversification and seasoning of the loan portfolio, historic loss experience, identified credit problems, delinquency levels and adequacy of collateral. The determination of the appropriate level of the allowance for loan credit losses is inherently highly subjective and requires us to make significant estimates of and assumptions regarding current credit risks and future trends, all of which may undergo material changes. Inaccurate management assumptions, deterioration of economic conditions affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require us to increase our allowance for loan credit losses and additional expenses may be incurred. At any time, we are likely to have loans in our portfolio that will result in losses but that have not been identified as nonperforming or potential problem credits. We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify deteriorating credits before they become nonperforming assets or that we will be able to limit or correctly estimate losses on those loans that are identified. In addition, our regulators, as an integral part of their periodic examination, review the adequacy of our allowance for loan credit losses and may direct us to make additions to the allowance based on their judgments about information available to them at the time of their examination. Changes in economic conditions or individual business or personal circumstances affecting borrowers, new information regarding existing loans, identification of additional problem loans and other factors, both within and outside of our control, may require an increase in the allowance. Further, if actual charge-offs in future periods exceed our estimation of charge-offs, we may need additional provision for loan losses to restore the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. If we are required to materially increase our level of allowance for loan credit losses for any reason, such increases could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of collateral securing certain of our loans and result in loan and other losses.
Real estate values in many Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi markets have experienced periods of fluctuation over the last several years, and the market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time. At December 31, 2022, $4.73 billion, or 66.7%, of our total LHFI was comprised of loans with real estate as a primary component of collateral. We also make loans secured by real estate as a supplemental source of collateral. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, and could result in losses that adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operation. Negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values and liquidity in our market areas could significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Collateral may have to be sold for less than the outstanding balance of the loan, which could result in losses on such loans. Such declines and losses could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. If real estate values decline, it is also more likely that we would be required to increase our allowance for loan credit losses, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The geographic concentration of our markets in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi makes us more sensitive than our more geographically diversified competitors to adverse changes in the local economy.
Unlike larger financial institutions that are more geographically diversified, we are a regional bank concentrated in the Interstate 20 Corridor between the Dallas/Fort Worth metropolitan area, East Texas, North Louisiana and Jackson, Mississippi, as well as in Houston, Texas. At December 31, 2022, 66.1% of our total loans (by dollar amount), excluding mortgage warehouse lines of credit, were made to borrowers who reside or conduct business in Texas, 20.5% attributable to Louisiana and 7.3% attributable to Mississippi, and substantially all of our real estate loans are secured by properties located in these states. A deterioration in local economic conditions or in the residential or commercial real estate markets could have an adverse effect on the quality of our portfolio, the demand for our products and services, the ability of borrowers to timely repay loans, and the value of the collateral securing loans. If the population, employment or income growth in one of our markets is negative or slower than projected, income levels, deposits and real estate development could be adversely impacted. Some of our larger competitors that are more geographically diverse may be better able to manage and mitigate risks posed by adverse conditions impacting only local or regional markets.
Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to our other mortgage loans.
Our loan portfolio includes non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans for individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as real estate construction and development loans. At December 31, 2022, our non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans totaled $1.46 billion, or 20.6%, of our total loan portfolio. These loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service, which may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. These loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because the collateral securing these loans typically cannot be liquidated as easily as residential real estate because there are fewer potential purchasers of the collateral. Additionally, non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, charge-offs on non-owner-occupied commercial real estate loans may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio would require us to increase our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability, and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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A large portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial loans secured by receivables, inventory, equipment or other commercial collateral, the deterioration in value of which could expose us to credit losses.
At December 31, 2022, approximately $2.05 billion, or 28.9%, of our total loans were commercial and industrial loans to businesses. In general, these loans are collateralized by general business assets, including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory and equipment and many are backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. These commercial loans are typically larger in amount than loans to individuals and, therefore, have the potential for larger losses on a single loan basis. Additionally, the repayment of commercial loans is subject to the ongoing business operations of the borrower. The collateral securing such loans generally includes movable property, such as equipment and inventory, which may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate, exposing us to increased credit risk. In addition, a portion of our customer base, including customers in the energy and real estate business, may be exposed to volatile businesses or industries which are sensitive to commodity prices or market fluctuations, such as energy prices. Accordingly, negative changes in commodity prices and real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of the collateral securing these loans. Significant adverse changes in the economy or local market conditions in which our commercial lending customers operate could cause rapid declines in loan collectability and the values associated with general business assets resulting in inadequate collateral coverage that may expose us to credit losses and could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our loan portfolio contains a number of large loans to certain borrowers, and deterioration in the financial condition of these borrowers could have a significant adverse impact on our asset quality.
Our growth over the past several years has been partially attributable to our ability to originate and retain relatively large loans given our asset size. At December 31, 2022, the size of our average loan held for investment was approximately $523,987. Further, at December 31, 2022, our 20 largest borrowing relationships, excluding mortgage loans held for sale, represented 10.8% of our outstanding loan portfolio, and 12.1% of our total commitments to extend credit. Along with other risks inherent in our loans, such as the deterioration of the underlying businesses or property securing these loans, the higher average size of our loans presents a risk to our lending operations. If any of our largest borrowers become unable to repay their loan obligations as a result of economic or market conditions or personal circumstances, our nonperforming loans and our provision for loan losses could increase significantly, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and resulting adverse economic conditions have adversely impacted, and could continue to adversely impact, our business and results.
Our business is dependent on the willingness and ability of our customers to conduct banking and other financial transactions. The ongoing COVID-19 global and national health emergency caused significant disruption in the United States and international economies and financial markets and continues to cause illness, quarantines, reduced attendance at events and reduced travel, reduced commercial and financial activity, and overall economic and financial market instability.
While the level of disruption caused by, and the economic impact of, COVID-19 has lessened in 2022, there is no assurance that the pandemic will not worsen again, included as a result of the emergence of new strains of the virus. Any worsening of the pandemic and its effects on the economy could further impact our business, our provision and allowance for credit losses, and the value of certain assets that we carry on our consolidated balance sheets such as goodwill. Our customers, business partners, and third-party providers, including those who perform critical services for our business, may also be adversely affected.
We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and the loss of any these individuals could adversely impact our business or reputation.
Our success depends in large part on the performance of our key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate and retain highly qualified senior and middle management and other skilled employees. Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. We may not be successful in retaining our key employees, and the unexpected loss of services of one or more of our key personnel could have an adverse effect on our business because of their skills, knowledge of our primary markets, years of industry experience and the difficulty of promptly finding qualified replacement personnel. If the services of any of our key personnel should become unavailable for any reason, we may not be able to identify and hire qualified persons on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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Unauthorized access, cyber-crime and other threats to data security may require significant resources, harm our reputation, and otherwise cause harm to our business.
We necessarily collect, use and hold personal and financial information concerning individuals and businesses with which we have a banking relationship. This information includes non-public, personally-identifiable information that is protected under applicable federal and state laws and regulations. Additionally, certain of our data processing functions are not handled by us directly, but are outsourced to third-party providers. Our facilities and systems, and those of our third-party service providers, may be vulnerable to threats to data security, security breaches, acts of vandalism and other physical security threats, computer viruses or compromises, ransomware attacks, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors or other similar events. Any security breach involving the misappropriation, loss or other unauthorized disclosure of our confidential business, employee or customer information, whether originating with us, our vendors or retail businesses, could severely damage our reputation, expose us to the risks of civil litigation and liability, require the payment of regulatory fines or penalties or undertaking of costly remediation efforts with respect to third parties affected by a security breach, disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
It is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk being posed by changing technologies or criminals intent on committing cyber-crime. Our controls and protections and those of our vendors could prove inadequate. In the last few years, there have been an increasing number of cyber incidents and cyber criminals continue to increase their sophistication, including several well-publicized cyber-attacks that targeted other companies in the United States, including financial services companies much larger than us. These cyber incidents have been initiated from a variety of sources, including terrorist organizations and hostile foreign governments. As technology advances, the ability to initiate transactions and access data has also become more widely distributed among mobile devices, personal computers, automated teller machines, remote deposit capture sites and similar access points, some of which are not controlled or secured by us. It is possible that we could have exposure to liability and suffer losses as a result of a security breach or cyber-attack that occurred through no fault of our own. Further, the probability of a successful cyber-attack against us or one of our third-party services providers cannot be predicted.
Cyber-security risks appear to be growing and, as a result, the cyber-resilience of banking organizations is of increased importance to federal and state banking agencies and other regulators. New or revised laws and regulations may significantly impact our current and planned privacy, data protection and information security-related practices, the collection, use, sharing, retention and safeguarding of consumer and employee information, and current or planned business activities. For example, a final rule that the federal banking agencies issued in November 2021 requires banking organizations to notify their primary federal regulator of significant computer security incidents within 36 hours of determining that such an incident has occurred. Compliance with current or future privacy, data protection and information security laws to which we are subject could result in higher compliance and technology costs and could restrict our ability to provide certain products and services, which could materially and adversely affect our profitability.
Our ability to attract and retain profitable bankers is critical to the success of our business strategy.
Our ability to retain and grow our loans, deposits and fee income depends upon the business generation capabilities, reputation and relationship management skills of our bankers. If we were to lose the services of any of our bankers, including profitable bankers employed by banks that we may acquire, to a new or existing competitor or otherwise, we may not be able to retain valuable relationships and some of our customers could choose to use the services of a competitor instead of our services.
Our growth strategy also relies on our ability to attract and retain additional profitable bankers. We may face difficulties in recruiting and retaining bankers of our desired caliber, including as a result of competition from other financial institutions. In particular, many of our competitors are significantly larger with greater financial resources, and may be able to offer more attractive compensation packages and broader career opportunities. Additionally, we may incur significant expenses and expend significant time and resources on training, integration and business development before we are able to determine whether a new banker will be profitable or effective. If we are unable to attract and retain profitable bankers, or if our bankers fail to meet our expectations in terms of customer relationships and profitability, we may be unable to execute our business strategy, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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The discontinuation of LIBOR could result in financial, operational, legal, reputational or compliance risks to us.
On March 5, 2021, the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority (the “FCA”), which regulates LIBOR, announced that (i) 24 LIBOR settings would cease to exist immediately after December 31, 2021 (all seven euro LIBOR settings; all seven Swiss franc LIBOR settings; the Spot Next, 1-week, 2-month, and 12-month Japanese yen LIBOR settings; the overnight, 1-week, 2-month, and 12-month sterling LIBOR settings; and the 1-week and 2-month US dollar LIBOR settings); (ii) the 1-month, 3-month, 6-month and 12-month US LIBOR settings would cease to exist after June 30, 2023; and (iii) the FCA would consult on whether the remaining nine LIBOR settings should continue to be published on a synthetic basis for a certain period using the FCA’s proposed new powers that the UK government is legislating to grant to them. Central banks and regulators in a number of major jurisdictions (for example, United States, United Kingdom, European Union, Switzerland and Japan) have convened working groups to find, and implement the transition to, suitable replacements for interbank offered rates. Regardless, the federal banking agencies issued guidance on November 30, 2020, encouraging banks to (i) stop using LIBOR in new financial contracts no later than December 31, 2021; and (ii) either use a rate other than LIBOR or include clear language defining the alternative rate that will be applicable after LIBOR’s discontinuation. We suspended the utilization of LIBOR as an index for new and renewed loans and instrument contracts as of December 31, 2021.
To address the problem created by legacy financial contracts that incorporate LIBOR as their reference interest rate, but extend beyond the date after which LIBOR will be published, on March 15, 2022, Congress enacted the Adjustable Interest Rate (LIBOR) Act (the “LIBOR Act”). On December 16, 2022, the Federal Reserve adopted a final rule implementing the LIBOR Act by adopting benchmark rates based on the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) that will replace LIBOR in certain financial contracts after June 30, 2023.
Given LIBOR's extensive use across financial markets, the transition away from LIBOR presents various risks and challenges to financial markets and institutions and could have a range of adverse effects on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our commercial and consumer businesses issue, trade and hold various products that are currently indexed to LIBOR. Among other products, at December 31, 2022, we had approximately $1.07 billion of loans indexed to LIBOR. Our products that are indexed to LIBOR are significant, and if not sufficiently planned for, the discontinuation of LIBOR could result in financial, operational, legal, litigation, reputational or compliance risks to us.
The elimination of LIBOR or any other changes or reforms to the determination or supervision of LIBOR could have an adverse impact on the market for or value of any LIBOR-linked securities, loans, swaps and other financial obligations or extensions of credit held by or due to us or on our overall financial condition or results of operations. All our notes contain fallback language that allows us to replace the index in the event LIBOR becomes unavailable, or unascertainable, ceases to be published or is otherwise unreliable. We determine the replacement index in our sole discretion and can include an effective adjustment to the spread. In addition, any inadequate fallback language may result in issues establishing an alternative index and adjusting the margin as applicable. We continue to monitor this activity and evaluate the related risks. In addition, in light of the FCA's announced schedule for the cessation of LIBOR, we will continue to renegotiate credit agreements executed prior to the addition of the LIBOR fallback language and extending beyond June 30, 2023 that utilize LIBOR as a factor in determining the interest rate, in order to replace LIBOR with SOFR or another new standard that is established, which may have an adverse effect on our overall financial condition or results of operations. Following the replacement of LIBOR, some or all of these credit agreements may bear interest at a lower interest rate, which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.
Although we are currently unable to assess what the ultimate impact of the transition from LIBOR will be, failure to adequately manage the transition could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Any failure to adequately manage this transition process with our customers could also adversely impact our reputation.
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We will be subject to heightened regulatory requirements if our total assets grow in excess of $10 billion as of December 31 of any calendar year.
As of December 31, 2022, our total assets were $9.69 billion. In addition to our current regulatory requirements, banks with $10 billion or more in total assets are, among other things: examined directly by the CFPB with respect to various federal consumer financial laws; subject to limits on debit interchange fees pursuant to Section 1075 of the Dodd-Frank Act, known as the Durbin Amendment; eligible for potentially a smaller dividend on holdings of Federal Reserve Bank stock; subject to the Volcker Rule’s limitations on proprietary trading and investments or sponsorship in covered funds; subject to the large bank assessment methodology for calculating FDIC insurance premiums; and no longer eligible to elect to be subject to the CBLR. Compliance with these additional ongoing requirements may necessitate additional personnel, the design and implementation of additional internal controls, or the incurrence of other significant expenses, among other things, any of which could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations. Our regulators may also consider our preparation for compliance with these regulatory requirements in the course of examining our operations generally or when considering any request from us or the Bank.
We will become subject to reduced debit interchange income and could face related adverse business consequences if our total assets grow in excess of $10 billion as of December 31 of any calendar year.
Debit card interchange fee restrictions set forth in the Durbin Amendment, as implemented by regulations of the Federal Reserve, cap the maximum debit interchange fee that a debit card issuer may receive per transaction. Debit card issuers with total consolidated assets of less than $10 billion are exempt from these interchange fee restrictions. The exemption for small issuers ceases to apply as of July 1 of the year following the calendar year in which the debit card issuer has total consolidated assets of $10 billion or more at calendar year end. Any reduction in interchange income as a result of the loss of the exemption for small issuers under the Durbin Amendment could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our interchange fees for the year ended December 31, 2022, were $7.7 million.
Moreover, our loss of eligibility under the exemption for small issuers could adversely affect or reduce our ability to maintain certain of our fee-sharing prepaid card partnerships, which have the right to terminate our agreement with respect to certain financial services under such circumstances.
We may have exposure to tax liabilities that are larger than we anticipate.
The tax laws applicable to our business activities are subject to interpretation and may change over time. From time to time, legislative initiatives, such as corporate tax rate changes, which may impact our effective tax rate and could adversely affect our deferred tax assets or our tax positions or liabilities, may be enacted. The taxing authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate may challenge our tax positions, which could increase our effective tax rate and harm our financial position and results of operations. In addition, our future income taxes could be adversely affected by earnings being higher than anticipated in jurisdictions that have higher statutory tax rates or by changes in tax laws, regulations or accounting principles. We are subject to audit and review by U.S. federal and state tax authorities. Any adverse outcome of such a review or audit could have a negative effect on our financial position and results of operations. In addition, the determination of our provision for income taxes and other liabilities requires significant judgment by management. Although we believe that our estimates are reasonable, the ultimate tax outcome may differ from the amounts recorded in our financial statements and could have a material adverse effect on our financial results in the period or periods for which such determination is made.
The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers' ability to repay loans.
We focus our business development and marketing strategy primarily on small to medium-sized businesses. Small to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete and may experience substantial volatility in operating results, any of which may impair a borrower's ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small and medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents and efforts of one or two people or a small group of people, and the death, disability or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay its loan. If general economic conditions negatively impact the markets in which we operate and small to medium-sized businesses are adversely affected or our borrowers are otherwise harmed by adverse business developments, this, in turn, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We face significant competition to attract and retain customers, which could impair our growth, decrease our profitability or result in loss of market share.
We operate in the highly competitive banking industry and face significant competition for customers from bank and nonbank competitors (including fintech companies), particularly regional and nationwide institutions, in originating loans, attracting deposits and providing other financial services. Our competitors are generally larger and may have significantly more resources, greater name recognition, and more extensive and established branch networks or geographic footprints than we do. Because of their scale, many of these competitors can be more aggressive than we can on loan and deposit pricing. Also, many of our nonbank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to continue to intensify due to financial institution consolidation; legislative, regulatory and technological changes; and the emergence of alternative banking sources.
Our ability to compete successfully will depend on a number of factors, including, among other things:
our ability to develop, maintain and build long-term customer relationships based on top quality service, high ethical standards and safe, sound assets;
our scope, relevance and pricing of products and services offered to meet customer needs and demands;
the rate at which we introduce new products and services relative to our competitors;
customer satisfaction with our level of service;
our ability to expand our market position;
industry and general economic trends; and
our ability to keep pace with technological advances and to invest in new technology.
Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability. Our failure to compete effectively in our primary markets could cause us to lose market share and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business.
Our business plan emphasizes relationship focused banking. We have benefited from strong relationships with and among our customers. As a result, our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. As such, we strive to enhance our reputation by recruiting, hiring and retaining employees who share our core values of being an integral part of the communities we serve and delivering superior service to our customers. If our reputation is negatively affected by the actions of our employees or otherwise, our existing relationships may be damaged. We could lose some of our existing customers, including groups of large customers who have relationships with each other, and we may not be successful in attracting new customers. Any of these developments could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
While we carefully monitor internal and external developments for areas of potential reputational risk and have established governance structures to assist in evaluating such risks in our business practices and decisions, adverse reputational impacts on third parties with whom we have important relationships may also adversely impact our reputation. Adverse impacts on our reputation, or the reputation of our industry, may also result in greater regulatory and/or legislative scrutiny, which may lead to laws, regulations or regulatory actions that may change or constrain the manner in which we engage with our customers and the products and services we offer. Adverse reputational impacts or events may also increase our litigation risk.
Our business faces increasing public scrutiny related to environmental, social and governance ("ESG") activities. We risk damage to our brand and reputation if we fail to act responsibly in a number of areas, such as diversity, equity and inclusion ("DEI"), environmental stewardship, human capital management, support for our local communities, corporate governance and transparency, or fail to consider ESG factors in our business operations. Additionally, investors and shareholder advocates are placing ever increasing emphasis on how corporations address ESG issues in their business strategy when making investment decisions and when developing their investment theses and proxy recommendations. We may incur meaningful costs with respect to our ESG efforts and if such efforts are negatively perceived, our reputation and stock price may suffer.
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Our business has grown rapidly, and we may not be able to maintain our historical rate of growth, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to successfully implement our business strategy.
Our business has grown rapidly. Financial institutions that grow rapidly can experience significant difficulties as a result of rapid growth. Furthermore, our primary strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by acquisitions of banking teams or other financial institutions. We may be unable to execute on aspects of our growth strategy to sustain our historical rate of growth or we may be unable to grow at all. For example, we may be unable to generate sufficient new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances, obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth or find suitable banking teams or acquisition candidates. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition, may impede or prohibit the growth of our operations, the opening of new branches, and the consummation of acquisitions. Further, we may be unable to attract and retain experienced bankers, which could adversely affect our growth. The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to effectively manage growth, which is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to adapt existing credit, operational, technology and governance infrastructure to accommodate our expanded operations. If we fail to build infrastructure sufficient to support rapid growth or fail to implement one or more aspects of our strategy, we may be unable to maintain historical earnings trends, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions or the Federal Reserve may direct us to restrain our growth.
We may not be able to manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth and expansion through de novo branching.
Our business strategy includes evaluating strategic opportunities to grow through de novo branching, and we believe that banking location expansion has been meaningful to our growth since inception. De novo branching carries with it certain potential risks, including significant startup costs and anticipated initial operating losses; an inability to gain regulatory approval; an inability to secure the services of qualified senior management to operate the de novo banking location and successfully integrate and promote our corporate culture; poor market reception for de novo banking locations established in markets where we do not have a preexisting reputation; challenges posed by local economic conditions; challenges associated with securing attractive locations at a reasonable cost; and the additional strain on management resources and internal systems and controls. Failure to adequately manage the risks associated with our anticipated growth through de novo branching could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. De novo branches require regulatory approval or non-objection, which may not be forthcoming.
Our financial condition and results of operations may be adversely affected by changes in accounting policies, standards and interpretations.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") and other bodies that establish accounting standards periodically change the financial accounting and reporting standards governing the preparation of our financial statements. Additionally, those bodies that establish and interpret the accounting standards (such as the FASB, SEC and banking regulators) may change prior interpretations or positions on how these standards should be applied. Changes resulting from these new standards may result in materially different financial results and may require that we change how we process, analyze and report financial information and that we change financial reporting controls.
We may pursue acquisitions in the future, which could expose us to financial, execution and operational risks.
Although we plan to continue to grow our business organically, we may, from time to time, consider acquisition opportunities that we believe complement our activities and have the ability to enhance our profitability. Our acquisition activities could be material to our business and involve a number of risks, including those associated with:
the identification of suitable institutions or assets for acquisition;
the diversion of management attention from the operation of our existing business to identify, evaluate and negotiate potential transactions;
the ability to attract funding to support additional growth within acceptable risk tolerances;
the use of inaccurate estimates and judgments to evaluate credit, operations, management and market risks with respect to the target institution or assets;
the ability to maintain asset quality;
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the adequacy of due diligence and the potential exposure to unknown or contingent liabilities related to the acquisition;
the retention of customers and key personnel, including bankers;
the timing and uncertainty associated with obtaining necessary regulatory approvals;
the incurrence of an impairment of goodwill associated with an acquisition and adverse effects on our results of operations;
the ability to successfully integrate acquired businesses;
litigation risk; and
the maintenance of adequate regulatory capital.
The market for acquisition targets is highly competitive, which may adversely affect our ability to find acquisition candidates that fit our strategy and standards at acceptable prices. We face significant competition in pursuing acquisition targets from other banks and financial institutions, many of which possess greater financial, human, technical and other resources than we do. Our ability to compete in acquiring target institutions will depend on our available financial resources to fund the acquisitions, including the amount of cash and cash equivalents we have and the liquidity and value of our common stock. In addition, increased competition may also drive up the acquisition consideration that we will be required to pay in order to successfully capitalize on attractive acquisition opportunities.
Acquisitions of financial institutions also involve operational risks and uncertainties, such as unknown or contingent liabilities with no available manner of recourse, exposure to unexpected problems such as asset quality, the retention of key employees and customers, and other issues that could negatively affect our business. We may not be able to complete future acquisitions after dedicating substantial resources or, if completed, we may not be able to successfully integrate the operations, technology platforms, management, products and services of the entities that we acquire or to realize our expected benefits or our attempts to eliminate redundancies. The integration process may also require significant time and attention from our management that would otherwise be directed toward servicing existing business and developing new business. Failure to successfully integrate the entities we acquire into our existing operations in a timely manner may increase our operating costs significantly and could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of our book value and net income per common share may occur in connection with any future acquisition, and the carrying amount of any goodwill that we currently maintain or may acquire may be subject to impairment in future periods.
The markets in which we operate are susceptible to hurricanes and other natural disasters, adverse weather and climate change effects, which could result in a disruption of our operations and increases in loan losses.
A significant portion of our business is generated from markets that have been, and may continue to be, damaged by hurricanes, floods, tropical storms, tornadoes and other natural disasters and adverse weather, which may grow more severe as a result of climate change. Natural disasters can disrupt our operations, cause widespread property damage, and severely depress the local economies in which we operate. If the economies in our primary markets experience an overall decline as a result of a natural disaster, adverse weather, climate change or other disaster, demand for loans and our other products and services could be reduced. In addition, the rates of delinquencies, foreclosures, bankruptcies and loan losses may increase substantially, as uninsured property losses or sustained job interruption or loss may materially impair the ability of borrowers to repay their loans. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that secures the loans could be materially and adversely affected by a disaster. A disaster could, therefore, result in decreased revenue and loan losses that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
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We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology.
The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services and an established and growing demand for mobile and other phone and computer banking applications. The effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs as well as service our customers better. Largely unregulated “fintech” businesses have increased their participation in the lending and payments businesses, and have increased competition in these businesses. This trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Our future success will depend, at least in part, upon our ability to address the needs of our customers by using technology to provide products and services that will satisfy customer demands for convenience as well as to create additional efficiencies in our operations as we continue to grow and expand our products and service offerings. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology enhancements or products, which could result in us not fully realizing the anticipated benefits from such new technology or require us to incur significant costs to remedy any such challenges in a timely manner.
These changes may be more difficult or expensive than we anticipate. Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products compared to those that we will be able to provide, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we may lose customers seeking new technology-driven products and services to the extent we are unable to provide such products and services.
New lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may subject us to additional risks.
From time to time, we implement new lines of business, or offer new products and product enhancements as well as new services within our existing lines of business, and we will continue to do so in the future. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In implementing, developing or marketing new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services, we may invest significant time and resources, although we may not assign the appropriate level of resources or expertise necessary to make these new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services successful or to realize their expected benefits. Further, initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, products, product enhancements or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives and shifting market preferences, may also impact the ultimate implementation of a new line of business or offerings of new products, product enhancements or services. Furthermore, any new line of business, product, product enhancement or service could have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Failure to successfully manage these risks in the development and implementation of new lines of business or offerings of new products, product enhancements or services could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management's decision-making and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or possibly subject us to regulatory scrutiny in the future.
The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is endemic to bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, and the identification of possible violations of anti-money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and the data that underlies them. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual Dodd-Frank Act stress testing and the Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we currently utilize stress testing for capital, credit and liquidity purposes and anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.
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We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. We seek to mitigate this risk by performing back-testing to analyze the accuracy of these techniques and approaches. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making. Failure to successfully manage these risks could have an adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
We may be required to repurchase mortgage loans in some circumstances, which could diminish our liquidity.
Historically, we have originated mortgage loans for sale in the secondary market. When mortgage loans are sold in the secondary market, we are required to make customary representations and warranties to the purchasers about the mortgage loans and the manner in which they were originated. The mortgage loan sale agreements require us to repurchase or substitute mortgage loans or indemnify buyers against losses, in the event we breach these representations and warranties. In addition, we may be required to repurchase mortgage loans as a result of early payment default of the borrower on a mortgage loan. With respect to loans that are originated by us through our broker or correspondents, the remedies available against the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not be as broad as the remedies available to a purchaser of mortgage loans against us or the originating broker or correspondent, if any, may not have the financial capacity to perform remedies that otherwise may be available. Therefore, if a purchaser enforces their remedies against us, we may not be able to recover losses from the originating broker or correspondent. If repurchase and indemnity demands increase and such demands are valid claims, it could diminish our liquidity, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We were not required to repurchase any material amount of mortgage loans sold into the secondary market during 2022, 2021 or 2020.
A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations.
Liquidity is essential to our business, and we monitor our liquidity and manage our liquidity risk at the holding company and bank levels daily. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have adequate liquidity to fund our operations. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of our investment securities, the sale of loans, and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity. Our most important source of funds is deposits. Deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. If our customers move money out of deposits and into other investments such as money market funds, we would lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.
Other primary sources of funds consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from the issuance and sale of our equity and debt securities to investors. Access to liquidity may be negatively impacted by the value of our securities portfolio, if liquidity and/or business strategy necessitate the sales of securities in a loss position. Additional liquidity is provided by the ability to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas and the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas. We also may borrow funds from third-party lenders, such as other financial institutions. Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us directly or the financial services industry or economy in general, such as disruptions in the financial markets or negative views and expectations about the prospects for the financial services industry. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by a decrease in the level of our business activity as a result of a downturn in our primary market area or by one or more adverse regulatory actions against us. In addition, our access to deposits may be affected by the liquidity and/or cash flow needs of depositors, which may be exacerbated in an inflationary, recessionary, or elevated rate environment.
Any decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, or to fulfill obligations such as repaying our borrowings or meeting deposit withdrawal demands, any of which could have a material adverse impact on our liquidity and could, in turn, have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, because our primary asset at the holding company level is the bank, our liquidity at the holding company level depends primarily on our receipt of dividends from the bank. If the bank is unable to pay dividends to us for any reason, we may be unable to satisfy our holding company level obligations, which include funding operating expenses and debt service obligations.
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We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, we may not be able to maintain regulatory compliance.
We face significant capital and other regulatory requirements as a financial institution. We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs, which could include the possibility of financing acquisitions. In addition, we, on a consolidated basis, and Origin Bank, on a stand-alone basis, must meet certain regulatory capital requirements and maintain sufficient liquidity in such amounts as the regulators may require from time to time. Importantly, regulatory capital requirements could increase from current levels, which could require us to raise additional capital or reduce our operations. Even if we satisfy all applicable regulatory capital minimums, our regulators could ask us to maintain capital levels which are significantly in excess of those minimums. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions and a number of other factors, including investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, market conditions and governmental activities, and on our financial condition and performance. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to maintain capital to meet regulatory requirements, we could be subject to enforcement actions or other regulatory consequences, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operation.
By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to additional credit and market risk.
We use interest rate swaps to help manage our interest rate risk from recorded financial assets and liabilities when they can be demonstrated to effectively hedge a designated asset or liability and the asset or liability exposes us to interest rate risk or risks inherent in customer related derivatives. We use other derivative financial instruments to help manage other economic risks, such as liquidity and credit risk, including exposures that arise from business activities that result in the receipt or payment of future known and uncertain cash amounts, the value of which are determined by interest rates. Our derivative financial instruments are used to manage differences in the amount, timing, and duration of our known or expected cash receipts principally related to our fixed rate loan assets. Hedging interest rate risk is a complex process, requiring sophisticated models and routine monitoring, and is not a perfect science. As a result of interest rate fluctuations, hedged assets and liabilities will appreciate or depreciate in market value. The effect of this unrealized appreciation or depreciation will generally be offset by income or loss on the derivative instruments that are linked to the hedged assets and liabilities. By engaging in derivative transactions, we are exposed to credit and market risk. If the counterparty fails to perform, credit risk exists to the extent of the fair value gain in the derivative. Market risk exists to the extent that interest rates change in ways that are significantly different from what we expected when we entered into the derivative transaction. The transition away from LIBOR as the interest rate benchmark for derivatives, including interest rate swaps, also may present market risk. The existence of credit and market risk associated with our derivative instruments could adversely affect our net interest income and, therefore, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.
At December 31, 2022, the fair value of our portfolio of available for sale investment securities was approximately $1.64 billion, which included a net unrealized loss of approximately $203.5 million, before taxes. The decline in the fair value of our available for sale investment securities during the year ended December 31, 2022, negatively impacted total stockholders' equity, primarily due to the steepening of the short end of the yield curve that occurred during the first three quarters of 2022. Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our portfolio and can cause potential adverse changes to the fair value of these securities. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions in respect of the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying securities, and changes in market interest rates and continued instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause an increase in the amount of the allowance for credit losses as it pertains to available for sale or held-to-maturity debt securities, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and future prospects. The process for determining if a security has a credit loss often requires complex, subjective judgments about whether there has been a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, whether management has the intent or ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any collateral underlying the security, and other relevant factors.
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We rely on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure, and a failure of these parties to perform for any reason could disrupt our operations.
Third parties provide key components of our business infrastructure such as data processing, internet connections, network access, core application processing, statement production, account analysis and mortgage servicing. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. In addition, we have engaged a third-party to administer our mortgage servicing activities through a subservicing arrangement. While we endeavor to manage and oversee our third-party vendors, these vendors may have contact with our customers and address customer complaints, which creates reputational and, potentially, regulatory risk. Replacing vendors or addressing other issues with our third-party service providers could entail significant delay and expense. If we are unable to efficiently replace ineffective service providers, or if we experience a significant, sustained or repeated, system failure or service denial, it could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability, any of which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with our lending activities.
In the course of our business, we may purchase real estate, or we may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination or may be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Any significant environmental liabilities could cause an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We may be subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.
Banking and other financial services companies, such as ours, rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support their day-to-day operations. Technology companies frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of our vendors, or other individuals or companies, may from time to time claim to hold intellectual property sold to us by our vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.
Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations and distracting to management. If we are found to infringe one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, we may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase our operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We and other financial institutions have been the subject of litigation, investigations and other proceedings which could result in legal liability and damage to our reputation.
We and certain of our directors, officers and subsidiaries are named from time to time as defendants in litigation and are the subject of investigations and other proceedings relating to our business and activities. Past, present and future litigation has included or could include claims for substantial compensatory and/or punitive damages or claims for indeterminate amounts of damages. We are also involved from time to time in other reviews, investigations and proceedings
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(both formal and informal) by governmental, law enforcement and self-regulatory agencies regarding our business. These matters could result in adverse judgments, settlements, fines, penalties, injunctions, amendments and/or restatements of our SEC filings and/or financial statements, determinations of material weaknesses in our disclosure controls and procedures or other relief. Substantial legal liability or significant regulatory action against us, as well as matters in which we are involved that are ultimately determined in our favor, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations, cause significant reputational harm to our business, divert management attention from the operation of our business and/or result in additional litigation.
Banking institutions are also increasingly the target of class action lawsuits. Most recently there has been an increase in class action lawsuits filed claiming deceptive practices or violations of account terms in connection with non-sufficient funds or overdraft charges. In September 2021, we received a class action complaint alleging that we have improperly charged and collected overdraft fees on debit card transaction that were allegedly authorized while the account was positive, but settled when the account was negative or overdrafted. Similarly, in January 2023, we received a class action complaint alleging that we have improperly charged and collected non-sufficient funds fees on items re-presented for payment. We are vigorously defending these actions and monitoring activity with similar class action lawsuits. If a court rules adversely to our defense of any class action lawsuits, or if we enter into a settlement agreement in connection with any class action lawsuit, we could be exposed to monetary damages, reputational harm, or subject to limits on our ability to operate our business, which could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and operating results.
We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.
Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, we participate in loans originated by other institutions, and we participate in syndicated transactions (including shared national credits) in which other lenders serve as the lead bank. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about, one or more financial institutions, financial service companies or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity, asset quality or other problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These problems, losses or defaults could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry
We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could subject us to regulatory action or penalties.
We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision and legal requirements that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are not intended to protect our stockholders. Rather, these laws and regulations are intended to protect customers, depositors, the Deposit Insurance Fund and the overall financial stability of the U.S., and not stockholders or counterparties. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividends or distributions that Origin Bank can pay to us, and that we can pay to our stockholders, and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than U.S. GAAP alone would generally require. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith effort or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, capital base and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive. All of these laws and regulations, and the supervisory framework applicable to our industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Paycheck Protection Program ("PPP") has also attracted interest from federal and state enforcement authorities, oversight agencies, regulators and Congressional committees. State Attorneys General and other federal and state agencies may assert that they are not subject to the provisions of the CARES Act and the PPP regulations entitling Origin Bank to rely on borrower certifications, and they may take more aggressive actions against Origin Bank for alleged violations of the provisions governing Origin Bank’s participation in the PPP. Federal and state regulators can impose or request that we
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consent to substantial sanctions, restrictions and requirements if they determine there are violations of laws, rules or regulations or weaknesses or failures with respect to general standards of safety and soundness, which could adversely affect our business, reputation, results of operation and financial condition.
We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which may result in lower returns on equity, require us to raise additional capital, limit growth opportunities or result in regulatory restrictions.
Increased regulatory capital requirements (and the associated compliance costs), whether due to the adoption of new laws and regulations, changes in existing laws and regulations, or more expansive or aggressive interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may require us to raise additional capital, or impact our ability to repurchase shares of capital stock, pay dividends or pay compensation to our executives, which could have a material and adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and the value of our common stock. If Origin Bank does not meet minimum capital requirements, it will be subject to prompt corrective action by the Federal Reserve. Prompt corrective action can include progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management and capital distributions. Failure to exceed the capital conservation buffer will result in certain limitations on dividends, capital repurchases, and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers. Even if we meet minimum capital requirements, it is possible that our regulators may ask us to raise additional capital.
We face a risk of noncompliance with the Bank Secrecy Act and other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations.
The federal Bank Secrecy Act, USA Patriot Act of 2001 and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain effective anti-money laundering programs and file suspicious activity and currency transaction reports as appropriate. The federal Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, established by the Treasury to administer the Bank Secrecy Act, is authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of those requirements and has recently engaged in coordinated enforcement efforts with the individual federal bank regulatory agencies, as well as the U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration and Internal Revenue Service. Federal bank regulatory agencies and state bank regulators also have begun to focus on compliance with Bank Secrecy Act and anti-money laundering regulations. If our policies, procedures and systems are deemed deficient, we would be subject to liability, including fines and regulatory actions such as restrictions on our ability to pay dividends and the necessity to obtain regulatory approvals to proceed with certain aspects of our business plan, which would negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Failure by Origin Bank to perform satisfactorily on its Community Reinvestment Act ("CRA") evaluations could make it more difficult for our business to grow.
The performance of a bank under the CRA, in meeting the credit needs of its community is a factor that must be taken into consideration when the federal banking agencies evaluate applications related to mergers and acquisitions, as well as branch opening and relocations. If Origin Bank is unable to maintain at least a "Satisfactory" CRA rating, our ability to complete the acquisition of another financial institution or open a new branch will be adversely impacted. If Origin Bank received an overall CRA rating of less than "Satisfactory", the Federal Reserve would not re-evaluate its rating until its next CRA examination, which may not occur for several more years, and it is possible that a low CRA rating would not improve in the future.
Increases in Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance premiums could adversely affect our earnings and results of operations.
The deposits of Origin Bank are insured by the FDIC up to legal limits and, accordingly, subject it to the payment of FDIC deposit insurance assessments. The bank's regular assessments are determined by the level of its assessment base and its risk classification, which is based on its regulatory capital levels and the level of supervisory concern that it poses. Moreover, the FDIC has the unilateral power to change deposit insurance assessment rates and the manner in which deposit insurance is calculated and also to charge special assessments to FDIC-insured institutions. The FDIC utilized these powers during the financial crisis for the purpose of restoring the reserve ratios of the Deposit Insurance Fund. Beginning in the first quarterly assessment period of 2023, the FDIC deposit insurance premiums were increased by two basis points. Any future special assessments, increases in assessment rates or premiums, or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could reduce our profitability or limit our ability to pursue certain business opportunities, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.
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Risks Related to Investing in Our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult for you to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, which may make it difficult for you to resell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired. There are many factors that may impact the market price and trading volume of our common stock, including, without limitation:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition or asset quality;
changes in economic or business conditions;
the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve, or in laws or regulations affecting us;
the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements and our filings with the SEC;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
the number (if any) of securities analysts covering us;
publication of research reports about us, our competitors, or the financial services industry generally, or changes in, or failure to meet, securities analysts' estimates of our financial and operating performance, or lack of research reports by industry analysts or ceasing of coverage;
changes in market valuations or earnings of companies that investors deem comparable to us;
the trading volume of our common stock;
future issuances of our common stock or other securities;
future sales of our common stock by us or our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders;
additions or departures of key personnel;
perceptions in the marketplace regarding our competitors and us;
significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by or involving our competitors or us;
other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products and services; and
other news, announcements or disclosures (whether by us or others) related to us, our competitors, our core market or the financial services industry.
In particular, the realization of any of the risks described in this "Risk Factors" section of this report or other unknown risks could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock and cause the value of your investment to decline. The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks have experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases have been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume of our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult to sell your shares at the volume, prices and times desired.
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Our dividend policy may change without notice, our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions, and we may not pay dividends in the future. We are dependent on dividends from the Bank to meet our financial obligations and pay dividends to our stockholders.
Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such cash dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. Our board of directors may, in its sole discretion, change the amount or frequency of dividends or discontinue the payment of dividends entirely at any time without notice to our stockholders. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited on account of our outstanding indebtedness as we generally must make payments on our junior subordinated indebtedness and our outstanding indebtedness before any dividends can be paid on our common stock.
Additionally, because our primary asset is our investment in the stock of Origin Bank, we are dependent upon dividends from the Bank to pay our operating expenses, satisfy our obligations and pay dividends on our common stock, and the Bank's ability to pay dividends on its common stock will substantially depend upon its earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate and other factors deemed relevant by its board of directors. In addition, our and the Bank's ability to declare and pay dividends depends on numerous laws and banking regulations and guidance that limit our and the Bank's ability to pay dividends, including the guidelines of the Federal Reserve regarding capital adequacy and dividends. As a consequence of these various limitations and restrictions, we may not be able to make, or may have to reduce or eliminate, the payment of dividends on our common stock. Any change in the level of our dividends or the suspension of the payment thereof could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.
An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.
Your investment in our common stock will not be a bank deposit and will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. Your investment will be subject to investment risk, and you must be capable of affording the loss of your entire investment.
Item 1B.    Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 2.    Properties
At December 31, 2022, our executive offices and those of Origin Bank were located at 500 South Service Road East, Ruston, Louisiana 71270 and we operated through 59 banking centers in Texas, Louisiana and Mississippi. At December 31, 2022, we had 19 banking centers in North Louisiana, 16 banking centers and two loan production offices in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex area, nine banking centers in East Texas, nine banking centers in the Houston metroplex, and six banking centers in the Ridgeland, Mississippi area. At December 31, 2022, Origin Bank owned its main office building and 30 of its banking centers, as well as a controlling interest in its operations center. The remaining facilities were occupied under lease agreements, the terms of which range from month to month to 30 years. We believe that our banking and other offices are in good condition and are suitable and adequate to our needs.
At December 31, 2022, our insurance holdings operated through 12 leased offices primarily located in Louisiana.
Item 3.    Legal Proceedings
We are subject to various legal actions that arise from time to time in the ordinary course of business. While the ultimate outcome of pending proceedings cannot be predicted with certainty, at this time, management does not expect any such proceedings, either individually or in the aggregate, would have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. However, one or more unfavorable outcomes in any legal action against us could have a material adverse effect for the period in which they are resolved. In addition, regardless of their merits or their ultimate outcomes, such matters are costly, divert management's attention and may materially adversely affect our reputation, even if resolved in our favor.
Item 4.    Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.
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PART II
Item 5.    Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK". Our common stock began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on May 9, 2018. Prior to that date, there was no public trading market for our common stock.
At February 6, 2023, there were approximately 6,311 holders of record of our common stock as reported by our transfer agent.
We intend to pay quarterly cash dividends on our common stock, subject to approval by our board of directors. Although we expect to pay dividends according to our dividend policy, we may elect not to pay dividends. Any declarations of dividends, and the amount and timing thereof, will be at the discretion of our board of directors. In determining the amount of any future dividends, our board of directors will take into account our earnings, capital requirements, financial condition and any other relevant factors. The primary source for dividends paid to stockholders are dividends or capital distributions paid to the Company from the Bank. There are regulatory restrictions on the ability of the Bank to pay dividends. Therefore, there can be no assurance that we will pay any dividends to holders of our stock or the amount of any such dividends. See "Item 1. Business - Regulation and Supervision" above and see Note 18 - Capital and Regulatory Matters contained in Item 8 of this report.
Equity Compensation Plans
See "Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters"
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Stock Performance Graph
The following graph compares the cumulative total stockholder return on our common stock to the cumulative total stockholder return for the Nasdaq Composite Index, the Nasdaq U.S. Benchmark Banks TR Index and the Nasdaq OMX ABA Community Bank TR index (collectively the "Indices") for the period beginning on May 9, 2018, the first day of trading of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol "OBNK", through December 31, 2022. The following reflects index values as of close of trading, assumes $100.00 invested on May 9, 2018, in our common stock, and the Indices and assumes the reinvestment of dividends, if any. The historical price of our common stock represented in this graph represents past performance and is not necessarily indicative of future performance.
After careful consideration of industry, average asset size, market capitalization, constituents within the indices, and overall comparability to our compensation peer group, we have determined the most comparable index is represented by the Nasdaq OMX ABA Community Bank TR Index.
https://cdn.kscope.io/72a8dd828a24b698a4a37371bda7d670-obnk-20221231_g1.jpg
May 9,
2018
Jun 30,
2018
Dec 31,
2018
Jun 30,
2019
Dec 31,
2019
Jun 30,
2020
Dec 31,
2020
Jun 30,
2021
Dec 31,
2021
Jun 30,
2022
Dec 31,
2022
Origin Bancorp, Inc.$100.00 $120.51 $100.48 $97.49 $112.41 $65.87 $83.80 $128.80 $131.00 $119.25 $113.57 
Nasdaq Composite Index100.00 102.32 90.40 109.08 122.24 137.04 175.34 197.60 213.15 150.26 142.60 
Nasdaq U.S. Benchmark Banks TR Index100.00 95.30 81.39 94.85 111.66 73.29 97.37 126.7 133.69 103.47 110.61 
Nasdaq OMX ABA Community Bank TR Index100.00 99.32 79.43 89.43 98.17 68.32 88.00 109.88 118.81 101.64 109.08 
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Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds
Stock Repurchases
In July 2019, the Company's board of directors authorized a stock repurchase program pursuant to which the Company was authorized purchase up to $40 million of its outstanding common stock. The stock repurchase program was approved for a period of three years and expired in June 2022, having repurchased a total of $28.0 million of outstanding common stock. In July 2022, the Board of Directors of the Company authorized a stock repurchase program pursuant to which the Company may, from time to time, purchase up to $50 million of its outstanding common stock. The shares may be repurchased in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions from time to time, depending upon market conditions and other factors, and in accordance with applicable regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The stock repurchase program is intended to expire in three years but may be terminated or amended by the Board of Directors at any time. The stock repurchase program does not obligate the Company to purchase any shares at any time.
At December 31, 2022, there remained $50.0 million of capacity under the stock repurchase program. There were no stock repurchases during the year ended December 31, 2022.
Item 6.     [Reserved]
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Item 7.    Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
The following discussion and analysis presents our financial condition and results of operations on a consolidated basis. However, we conduct all of our material business operations through our wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, and the discussion and analysis that follows primarily relates to activities conducted at the Bank level.
The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes contained in Item 8 of this report. To the extent that this discussion describes prior performance, the descriptions relate only to the periods listed, which may not be indicative of our future financial outcomes. In addition to historical information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause results to differ materially from management's expectations. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in the sections titled "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" and "Item 1A. Risk Factors." We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements.
Discussion in this Form 10-K includes results of operations and financial condition for 2022 and 2021 and year-over-year comparisons between 2022 and 2021. For discussion on results of operations and financial condition pertaining to 2021 and 2020 and year-over-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020, please refer to “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on February 23, 2022.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and with general practices within the financial services industry. Application of these principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under current circumstances. These assumptions form the basis for our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily available from independent, objective sources. We evaluate our estimates on an ongoing basis. Use of alternative assumptions may have resulted in significantly different estimates. Actual results may differ from these estimates. Please refer to Note 1 - Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements contained in Item 8 of this report for a full discussion of our accounting policies, including estimates.
We have identified the following accounting estimates that, due to the difficult, subjective or complex judgments and assumptions inherent in those estimates and the potential sensitivity of the financial statements to those judgments and assumptions, are critical to an understanding of our financial condition and results of operations. We believe that the judgments, estimates and assumptions used in the preparation of the financial statements are appropriate.
Allowance for Loan Credit Losses. The allowance for loan credit losses represents the estimated losses for loans accounted for on an amortized cost basis. Expected losses are calculated using relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts that affect the collectability of the reported amount. We evaluate loans held for investment ("LHFI") on a pool basis with pools of loans characterized by loan type, collateral, industry, internal credit risk rating and FICO score. The amount of the allowance for loan credit losses is affected by loan charge-offs, which decrease the allowance, recoveries on loans previously charged off, which increase the allowance, as well as the provision for loan credit losses charged to income, which increases the allowance. In determining the provision for loan credit losses, management monitors fluctuations in the allowance resulting from actual charge-offs and recoveries and periodically reviews the size and composition of the loan portfolio in light of current and forecasted economic conditions. If actual losses exceed the amount of allowance for loan credit losses, it could materially and adversely affect our earnings. This evaluation is inherently subjective as it requires estimates that are susceptible to significant revision as more information becomes available. Credit losses are charged against the allowance for loan credit losses when management believes the loss is confirmed.
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Loan Acquisition Accounting. We account for our mergers/acquisitions under Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 805, Business Combinations, which requires the use of the acquisition method of accounting. All identifiable assets acquired, including loans, are recorded at fair value. The fair value for acquired loans at the time of acquisition or merger is based on a variety of factors, including discounted expected cash flows, adjusted for estimated prepayments and credit losses. In accordance with ASC 326, the fair value adjustment is recorded as premium or discount to the unpaid principal balance of each acquired loan. Loans that have been identified as having experienced a more-than-insignificant deterioration in credit quality since origination is a purchase credit deteriorated (“PCD”) loan. The net premium or discount on PCD loans is adjusted by the Company’s allowance for credit losses recorded at the time of merger/acquisition. The remaining net premium or discount is accreted or amortized into interest income over the remaining life of the loan using the effective interest rate method. The net premium or discount on loans that are not classified as PCD (“non-PCD”), that includes credit and non-credit components, is accreted or amortized into interest income over the remaining life of the loan using a constant yield method. We then record the necessary allowance for credit losses on the non-PCD loans through provision for loan credit losses expense.
In the first quarter of 2020, U.S. federal regulatory authorities issued an interim final rule that provided banking organizations that adopted the Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”) methodology during the 2020 calendar year with the option to delay the regulatory capital impact for up to two years (beginning January 1, 2020), followed by a three-year transition period. We elected to use the two-year delay of CECL’s impact on our regulatory capital (from January 1, 2020, through December 31, 2021), followed by the three-year transition period of CECL’s initial impact on our regulatory capital (from January 1, 2022, through December 31, 2024), and, accordingly, we began to amortize the CECL adoption impact to our regulatory capital beginning on January 1, 2022. The amount representing the CECL impact to the Company's regulatory capital that will be ratably transitioning back into regulatory capital over the transition period is $5.1 million and $7.6 million at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Mortgage Servicing Rights. We recognize the rights to service mortgage loans based on the estimated fair value of the Mortgage Servicing Right ("MSR") when loans are sold and the associated servicing rights are retained. We elected to account for the MSR at fair value.
The fair value of the MSR is determined using a valuation model administered by a third-party that calculates the present value of estimated future net servicing income. The model incorporates assumptions that market participants use in estimating future net servicing income, including estimates of prepayment speeds, discount rate, default rates, cost to service (including delinquency and foreclosure costs), escrow account earnings, contractual servicing fee income and other ancillary income such as late fees. Management reviews all significant assumptions quarterly. Mortgage loan prepayment speeds, a key assumption in the model, is the annual rate at which borrowers are forecasted to repay their mortgage loan principal. The discount rate used to determine the present value of estimated future net servicing income, another key assumption in the model, is an estimate of the rate of return investors in the market would require for an asset with similar risk. Both assumptions can, and generally will, change as market conditions and interest rates change.
An increase in either the prepayment speed or discount rate assumption will result in a decrease in the fair value of the MSR, while a decrease in these assumptions will result in an increase in the fair value of the MSR. In recent years, there have been significant market-driven fluctuations in loan prepayment speeds and discount rates. These fluctuations can be rapid and may continue to be significant. Therefore, estimating prepayment speed and/or discount rates within ranges that market participants would use in determining the fair value of the MSR requires significant management judgment.
General
We are a financial holding company headquartered in Ruston, Louisiana. Our wholly-owned bank subsidiary, Origin Bank, was founded in 1912 in Choudrant, Louisiana. Deeply rooted in our history is a culture committed to providing personalized, relationship banking to businesses, municipalities, and personal clients to enrich the lives of the people in the communities we serve. We provide a broad range of financial services and currently operate 59 banking centers located in Dallas/Fort Worth, East Texas, Houston, North Louisiana and Mississippi. As a financial holding company operating through one segment, we generate the majority of our revenue from interest earned on loans and investments, service charges and fees on deposit accounts.
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We incur interest expense on deposits and other borrowed funds and noninterest expense, such as salaries and employee benefits and occupancy expenses. We analyze our ability to maximize income generated from interest earning assets and expense of our liabilities through our net interest margin. Net interest margin is a ratio calculated as net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets. Net interest income is the difference between interest income on interest-earning assets, such as loans, securities and interest-bearing cash, and interest expense on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. Net interest spread is the average yield on interest-earning assets minus the average rate on interest-bearing liabilities.
Changes in market interest rates and the interest rates we earn on interest-earning assets or pay on interest-bearing liabilities, as well as in the volume and types of interest-earning assets, interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing liabilities and stockholders' equity, are usually the largest drivers of periodic changes in net interest spread, net interest margin and net interest income. Fluctuations in market interest rates are driven by many factors, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, deflation, macroeconomic developments, changes in unemployment, the money supply, political and international conditions and conditions in domestic and foreign financial markets. Periodic changes in the volume and types of loans in our loan portfolio are affected by, among other factors, economic and competitive conditions, as well as developments affecting the real estate, technology, financial services, insurance, transportation and manufacturing sectors within our target markets.
Results of Operations
Selected income statement data, returns on average assets and average equity for the comparable periods were as follows:
(Dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)At and for the Years Ended December 31,
202220212020
Net income$87,715 $108,546 $36,357 
Financial ratios:
ROAA(1)
1.01 %1.45 %0.56 %
ROAE(1)
10.81 15.79 5.82 
Capital ratio:
Book value per common share$30.90 $30.75 $27.53 
____________________________
(1)All average balances are calculated using average daily balances.
Net Interest Income and Net Interest Margin
During the third quarter of 2022, we completed our merger with BTH. As a result of the merger, the Company acquired $1.24 billion in loans, net of fair value accounting adjustments, $456.8 million in investment securities and $1.57 billion in deposits, which impacted most net interest income and interest expense categories.
Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2022, was $275.3 million, an increase of $59.0 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Increases in interest rates and average interest-earning assets drove increases of $51.5 million and $33.5 million, respectively, in total interest income. The increase in total interest income was offset by a $25.9 million increase in interest expense; $22.5 million of the increase was driven by increases in interest rates. Purchase accounting accretion on acquired loans was $2.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, with remaining purchase accounting net loan discounts totaling $2.2 million at December 31, 2022. Net purchase accounting accretion income on deposits and subordinated indebtedness totaled $472,000 for the year ended December 31, 2022, bringing the impact from purchase accounting treatment on total net interest income to $3.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2022.
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Interest income earned on LHFI during the year ended December 31, 2022, increased in all loan categories, except for mortgage warehouse lines of credit, when compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Interest income earned on commercial real estate and commercial and industrial loans contributed $26.4 million and $23.4 million, respectively, of the $68.6 million total increase in interest income earned on LHFI when compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. These increases were offset by an $8.7 million decrease in interest income earned on mortgage warehouse lines of credit for the year ended December 31, 2022, compared to the year ended December 31, 2021. Increases in mortgage interest rates during the year ended December 31, 2022, negatively impacted the volume of mortgage warehouse lines during the year ended December 31, 2022.
An increase in average balances drove $18.5 million of the $26.4 million increase in interest income earned on commercial real estate, while increases in interest rates drove $21.4 million of the $23.4 million increase in interest income earned on commercial and industrial loans for the comparable periods. The merger with BTH contributed $79.0 million of the $449.4 million growth in average balances in commercial real estate.
The Federal Reserve Board sets various benchmark rates, including the Federal Funds rate, and thereby influences the general market rates of interest, including the loan and deposit rates offered by financial institutions. In early 2020, the Federal Reserve lowered the target rate range to 0.00% to 0.25%, which remained in effect throughout all of 2021. On March 17, 2022, the target rate range was increased to 0.25% to 0.50%, then subsequently increased six more times during 2022, to 4.25% to 4.50%. At December 31, 2022, the Federal Funds target rate had range increased 425 basis points on a year-to-date basis. In order to remain competitive as market interest rates increase, interest rates paid on deposits must also increase. Increases in interest rates contributed $43.3 million to the total increase in interest income earned on total LHFI, while interest rates increased our total deposit interest expense and FHLB and advances and other borrowings interest expense by $19.0 million and $3.3 million, respectively.
The fully tax-equivalent net interest margin was 3.42% for the year ended December 31, 2022, a 32 basis point increase from the year ended December 31, 2021. The yield earned on interest-earning assets for the year ended December 31, 2022, was 4.02%, a 60 basis point increase from 3.42% for the year ended December 31, 2021. This increase was partially offset by a 43 basis point increase in interest rates paid on total interest-bearing liabilities. The net increase in purchase accounting accretion income due to the BTH merger increased the fully tax-equivalent NIM by four basis points during the year ended December 31, 2022.
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The following table presents average consolidated balance sheet information, interest income, interest expense and the corresponding average yields earned and rates paid for the year ended December 31, 2022, 2021 and 2020.
<
Year Ended December 31,
202220212020
(Dollars in thousands)
Assets
Average Balance(1)
Income/ExpenseYield/Rate
Average Balance(1)
Income/ExpenseYield/Rate
Average Balance(1)
Income/ExpenseYield/Rate
Commercial real estate$1,951,246 $88,175 4.52 %$1,501,890 $61,804 4.12 %$1,322,477 $59,059 4.47 %
Construction/land/land development708,758 36,352 5.13 528,618 21,914 4.15 554,038 25,255 4.56 
Residential real estate1,143,190 49,635 4.34 916,039 37,045 4.04 769,838 34,147 4.44